1. Based on the content of the article, what type of claim is the researcher trying to make (frequency, association, or causal)? Explain your answer. What did they write that makes you think so?
Associational: In the study attachment theory was used to understand the influence of past relationships and self-efficacy, to understand individual cognition about romantic relationships, and relational anxiety.It was used to understand individual emotional responsivity and how these relational antecedents associate with well-being.
2. Was the research method correlational or experimental? Explain your choice. (8 points)
It is correlational because the well-being of the said individual correlates to their take on the relationship.
3. What hypothesis or hypotheses did the study attempt to test? Hint: only consider the variables that we listed at the top of this instruction sheet.
low levels of attachment anxiety and avoidance, as well as low levels of dating anxiety and fear of being single, and high levels of self-efficacy in romantic relationships, will predict well-being across the three measures of the study.
4. What was/were the primary conceptual independent variable(s) of the study? How was/were the primary IV(s) operationalized? (8 points: 4 points for concept, 4 points for operationalization)
The independent variable of the study is to investigate which aspects of relationship or abilities in terms of attachment, relational anxiety, and self-efficacy which will predict the individual’s wellbeing well-being.
5. What was/were the primary conceptual dependent variable(s)? How was/were the DV(s) operationalized? (8 points: 4 points for concept, 4 points for operationalization)
The Dependent Variable predicted the likelihood of the individuals being less attracted and anxious within a relationship would portray happiness in for their wellbeing. Attachment style was measured by the Experiences in the relationship Scale-short form’s, while subjective happiness was measured by “Lymbormirky’s ; Lepper’s measure of subjective happiness.
6. Describe the participants. If available, provide the total number of participants, their sex, age, ethnicity, and other defining features. How were they recruited? How many were in each group in the end? Hint: This information can be found in the methods section. (8 points)
According to the study, One hundred forty-five undergraduate, heterosexual, unmarried students (117 women, 28 men) completed an online questionnaire. Participants were aged 18 to 25 (M ¼ 21.10, SD ¼ 1.75), and the ethnic composition was 5.5% Asian American, 8.3% African American, 37% Latino, 39% White, and 11% Mixed/ Other. Forty-six percent were single, 16% were in a relationship of less than 1 year, and 38% were in a relationship of 1 year or more.
7. What did the participants do in the study do? For example, did they fill out a survey, receive an intervention, perform a task, or something else? Did all of the participants do the same thing or did they do different things? Hint: This information can often be found in the procedure section. Try to be as specific as possible. (8 points)
The Undergraduates filled out an online survey, which upon finishing the students were required to invite other Undergraduate Human Development students in order to pass on the survey.
8. Describe the main results; i.e., those bearing on the hypotheses tested. Was each hypothesis supported or not? What did the author(s) conclude? Hint: Re-write each of the hypotheses being tested and summarize the findings for each. (8 points)
In the Authors hypothesis, low attachment anxiety will predict the Happiness and well-being of an individual. Participants with low anxiety in relationships as well as other social situations supports the authors hypothesis. The author also hypothesized that having low levels of attachment avoidance will also predict happiness and Well-being. This resulted in the individuals showing low levels of attachment within the relationship also supported the hypothesis.
9. Was reliability mentioned in the research (e.g., test-retest, interrater, or internal)? What data were provided for the tests or measures used in the research (if no data were provided, please explain what would be appropriate)? (8 points)
Interrater Reliability was used in the research. Glickman and La Greca’s 21-item Dating Anxiety Scale was used in the first portion of the study, it measured participants’ anxiety on dating and romantic relationships. Cronbach’s alpha was also used for measurement, it reported avoidance subscale(a=0.74), anxiety subscale (a=0.69) and lastly subjective happiness (a=0.86).
10. Considering the operational definitions of the variables (IVs as well as DV) and the subjective ways to assess construct validity (Hint: Ch. 5 ; 6), do you think the research has strong or weak construct validity? Explain your answers. (8 points)
This research article has strong construct validity, because they focus on the two measures of Attachment style and Happiness. The measurements are taken by self -study, where they are asked a series of questions based off attachment and happiness then recruit other undergraduate students to take the same questionnaire and continue the cycle of snowball sampling.
11. Do you think the research has strong or weak external validity? Explain your answer. (8 points)
The research has weak external validity; the study is only geared towards the individuals whom are undergraduates in Human Development and only recruit other undergraduates in the human Development classes. This is an example of snowball sampling. It should also be noted that due to the small group of interest the sample size is too small.
12. Does the study establish covariance? If so, explain why you reach that conclusion. If not, why not? (8 points)
Yes this is covariance, the two variables form a relationship. It is established with the study for anxiety and avoidance there is attachment and happiness.
13. Does the study establish temporal precedence? If so, explain why you reach that conclusion. If not, why not? (8 points)
Yes, temporal precedence is established since low levels of anxiety and avoidance lead to higher levels of happiness while high levels of anxiety and happiness could lead to lower levels of happiness.
14. Does the study have a third-variable problem? If so, explain why you think so and provide one possible third-variable. If not, why not? (8 points)
Since the study lacked experimentation, there is a third variable, the individual’s personal life beyond dating could be a factor as well. Stress form work, parents, School; Life itself can be the extra variable to the study. It can alter the effects of the questionnaire.
15. Do the conclusions by the author(s) match the research method? Why or why not (we are asking for reasons related to the materials covered in the course rather than your personal opinion)? (8 points)
Yes, the conclusions matched the research method. In this study we found that the “abilities” in romantic relationships that predicted well-being varied by the aspect of well-being. The best predictors of subjective happiness were low attachment anxiety, low dating anxiety in group situations, and high self-efficacy in romantic relationships. Findings indicate that individuals who do not feel anxious in their relationships or when in group, social situations and generally feel more in control of managing situations in romantic relationships report more happiness.
16. Considering your answers to the above questions, discuss two things that you would change to improve this research, or include in future research. How would your proposal resolve these issues? (8 points)
I would get rid of the snowball sampling’ having only Human Development students take the questionnaire does not do well for the demographics of the study. There are less females in the study because of the bias sampling. By expanding to external resources such as voluntary participants in the college versus only one class, it produces a larger sample size with more useful data.
17. Using your ability to search for information, what evidence (empirical) supports the claims made in the assigned research article (e.g., What have other authors found that would support or refute the main claim by the authors?)? Find three relevant sources. All three must be peer-reviewed empirical research articles. Summarize the salient points from each, whether they would support the claim made in the assigned research article, and explain how credible they are and why (based on credibility as explained by the textbook). You should be able to accomplish this in two paragraphs (one for summaries and one for credibility). Include in-text citations and a reference list at the end of your paper (APA format). FOR THIS ASSIGNMENT, YOU MUST USE ONLY PEER-REVIEWED EMPIRICAL RESEARCH ARTICLES. (12 pts – 4 pts for each source)
Source 1.)” ( Rostamian, Negar) Attachment theory is one of the most important aspects of the psychology. In this study Medical science students were tested at random taking the Hazan and Shaver’s attachment style measure and the Oxford Happiness Questionnaire were used. The results were analyzed using the SPSS software version 16 (IBM, Chicago IL, USA) and statistical analysis was performed via t test, Chi square test, and multiple regression tests His conclusion was”. ” ( Rostamian, Negar) the most common attachment style was secure attachment style, which can be a positive prognostic factor in medical students, helping them to manage stress. Higher frequency of avoidant attachment style among single persons, compared with married people, is mainly due to their negative attitude toward others and failure to establish and maintain relationships with others.”
Validity: This journal empirical because it is peer reviewed.
(Wilson, L., Catalano, D., Sung, C., Phillips, B., Chou, C., Chan, J. Y. C., ; Chan, F. (2013).”
This journal focused on attachment, social support, and coping as psychosocial correlates in predicting happiness in people with spinal cord injuries. The design is quantitative descriptive research design using multiple regression and correlation techniques. There were approximately 274 individuals with spinal cord injuries were used in the study. Happiness was measured by the Subjective Happiness Scale. This resulted in functional disability and psychosocial correlates including coping, attachment styles, and social support were found to be associated with happiness scores. Functional disability was found to have a large negative effect on happiness and the effect was significantly reduced after taking into consideration the effect of positive psychology factors.
“(Wilson, L., Catalano, D., Sung, C., Phillips, B., Chou, C., Chan, J. Y. C., ; Chan, F. (2013) Positive psychology variables are important for happiness and subjective well-being, and happiness in turn is related to better quality of life. The negative relationship between functional disability and happiness can be mediated by attachment, social support, and coping. Rehabilitation professionals should deemphasize negative characteristics related to poor psychological adjustment and focus on positive human traits and positive psychology interventions for people with disabilities”.
It is empirical because it is peer reviewed and it supports the current study for its use in physically injured patients in place of College students in or lacking relationships.
Source 3.)'(Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) Source three focused on the investigation of happiness and willingness to communicate in three attachment styles on college students. using cluster sampling method, 400 students were selected as sample. Hazan and Shaver’s Adult attachment styles scale, Memorial University of Newfoundland Scale of Happiness (MUNSCH) and willingness to communicate scale were used for collecting of data.
(Irimia R, Gottschling M (2016) “Using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc multiple comparison were performed. the results showed that there are significant difference among attachment styles on happiness”.
This article is empirical because it is a scholarly source and is peer reviewed.