Bisphenol A

Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins and is it produced in large amount (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), 2014). Moreover, daily items are mainly contains BPA (Rochester, 2013).
Most people are exposed to BPA through their diet and this is due to present of BPA in food and beverages (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, 2010). This make up of majority of daily human exposure to BPA. In addition, inhalation and transdermal can lead to exposure to BPA (Konieczna, Rutkowska & Racho?, 2015). Moreover, the BPA source of contamination can happen through wastewater, air, dust and soil (Valentino et al., 2016).
BPA can be leach into our food and water supplies as it is used to coat the lining inside of food and drinks cans. BPA can bring many health problems to human. BPA is an endocrine disruptor and it can influence secretion, transportation and elimination of natural hormones. It can lead to reproductive disorders which may lead to infertility (Nordqvist, 2017).

There are several common methods to extract BPA from environmental water samples. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid-phase extraction are regularly been used to extract BPA. Both of these methods involved very complicated procedure, time-consuming and used of large quantities of organic solvents. (Sarafraz-Yazdi & Amiri, 2010).
There are some new methods introduced to compensate for the less-ideal behaviour of LLE and Solid phase extraction (SPE). Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME) are used to meet the green chemistry requirements. These methods have some advantages include fast, inexpensive, easy to operate and consumes low volume of organic solvents (Rezaee, Yamini & Faraji, 2010).
At present, people are concerned about BPA because BPA can migrate to human in various ways such as through food, beverages, environmental water and even baby bottles. Human exposure to BPA will have higher chance to get heart disease, diabetes, and reproduction defects. Newborns can have reduced birth weight and abnormal development of brain function. Besides, BPA can affect human’s endocrine function. The instability, insensitivity and low accuracy of instruments have made it difficult to screen BPA. Therefore, a new method should be developed to compensate for the inadequate of previous methods such as LLE and SPE.
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a chemical that is used to manufacture many commercial products which include food container and hygiene products (Petre, 2016). BPA is in dental sealants, water bottles, the inside lining of canned foods and drinks, compact discs, medical devices and many other daily products. There is a high possibility for human to take in BPA through diet, air, water and dust (Micha?owicz, 2014). Moreover, BPA is best known for its application in producing polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins which include those in beverage cans and baby bottles. The occasion of using epoxy resins is to avoid corrosion and stay inert (Rogers, n.d).
Bisphenol A or 4, 4′-Isopropylidenediphenol is commonly known as BPA is a white powder with mild odour.