CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW
A literature review is a step-by-step process that involves the identification of published and unpublished work from secondary data sources on the topic interest, the evaluation of this work in relation to the problem and the documentation of this work (Sekaran & Bougie, 2009, p.38). Each of the contents of the literature is focus on the specific nature of the relevant literature that relates to this study.
This chapter contains the reviews of secondary data that researchers have collected from journals, articles and book. The reviews are summarized after several referral from the past studies and are related to the motivation models. Hypothesis will be formulated based on the relationship between independent variables (intrinsic motivation and extrinsic motivation) and dependent variables (job performance)..
2.1 Concept of Motivation to Learn
In general the word motivation is very powerful yet can sometimes be tricky too. At times, it would be really easy to get motivated and could find ourselves wrapped up all the excitement. However, it can also be impossible to figure out how to motivate yourself and you can sometimes be trapped in a death spiral of procrastination.
However what is motivation to learn? How to define it? The phrase motivation to learn can be divided into two components which are motivation and learning. The word motivation only can be known as a persistence, direction or even an amount of effort that may be expanded into an individual so that he or she could achieve their particular objectives. (Blanchard & Thacker, 2007). Besides that, leaning can be determined using two component which are human cognitive and behavioral perspective. Cognitive theories have explained learning as relatively permanent changes in cognitive occurring as a result of experiences. Behavior theories also have defined that leaning as relatively a permanent changes in behavior in response to a stimulus or set of stimuli. (Noe,1986: 736-170). All the above, will directly or indirectly affect the individual who have a clear goal, high self efficacy and even who puts a high value of outcomes.
Motivation to learn also related to goal orientated. The way an employee try to orient themselves to learn new task or skills within a domain is a very strong indicator of their engagement and performance. Employee who wants to master in new field, department or even new skills will eventually uses more effective learning strategies compared to other employee who is ego orientated. For example, an employee will invest his effort and time to master the HR department because he or she really interested in the HR field and the employee will even asked how to do this ?, how to do that?, why should do that?. This will make them to explore even more better and have a critical thinking.
Besides that, motivation to learn can strive for goals and the willpower as well. An employee need encouragement and feedback in order for them to develop their willpower. Before employees’ initiating a learning activity, they should orient themselves to the learning task in terms of its purpose and the possible solution plans. This is because, knowledge is the main item needed to make any effective decisions which is persist in goal striving stage. In this way, employees can think and judge which strategies will be best for them to take and which one will be more useful in order to achieve the self goals and also the organization goals.
2.1.1 Intrinsic motivation
Intrinsic motivation is a motivation that involves the engaging in a person behaviour because it is personally rewarding, they will also perform an activity for their own sake rather than the desire for some external reward. This theory also can be define as the internal motivation for the employees or trainees. Examples of action for this motivation include: solving a word puzzle because it is more fun and challenging and even exciting, participating in a sport because you find the activity more enjoyable. In this way, we can say that a person’s behavior can be motivated by their own internal desire to participate in any activity for its own sake.
Besides that, through this intrinsic motivation, people will try to obtain their motivation in it self for work very well. This is because intrinsic motivation is more on self satisfaction. There are five aspects of intrinsic motivation which are preference for challenge rather than for easy work, incentive to work to satisfy their own interest and curiosity rather than pleasing others, always independent mastery attempts than dependent on others, independent judgement and always prefer internal criteria for success and failure rather than external criteria. Intrinsic motivation is also a highly desire form of incentive that shows up from a person’s internal desire for their self satisfaction or pleasure in performing their particular task and even can be directly or indirectly effect the employee job performance. This is because for an employee to do their work or to fulfill their satisfaction, they need some spirit and satisfaction in order to improve their job performance.
2.1.2 Extrinsic motivation
According Kendra Cherry (2018), extrinsic motivation occurs when we are motivated to perform a behavior or engage in an activity to earn a reward or avoid punishment. Extrinsic motivation is also more to external reward to an employee. This is called in such way because it can boost up the employee and eventually gives them the spirit for them to be motivated. This motivation typically has been characterized as a pale and impoverished form of motivation. The classical case of extrinsic motivation is that one feels externally propel with the action and it can also be called as self endorsed. Whenever a person is motivated by the external factors such as money, praise, competition and even threat or punishment, whether to avoid the negative outcomes or to achieve positive results, it is wholly considered as extrinsic motivation. Extrinsic motivation is been carry out in order to increase the productivity in an organization or even get to create a better learning environment for all the employees. This motivation also helps to increase an individual benefits. However, there is one disadvantage which is everyone have been spending their whole life by chasing rewards and pride at work and then they will eventually regret for what they have missed in their life.
External rewards which is the extrinsic motivation can also be such a source of feedback where they know until to what extent they have achieve their goals and how their performance have affected and achieved to a deserving standard. In many cases, the employees are extrinsically motivated if they are able to satisfy their needs and satisfaction especially through monetary compensation. In such way, we can say that this motivation directly help to increase the job performance of an employee because each of the people needs the reward for the job that they have done well and done it in a certain time period.
2.1.3 Theory Related to Motivation
The theory that is related to motivation is the Herzberg motivation theory. This theory is been developed by Fredrick Herzberg (1959) who was an American psychologist where he describes about the human motivation. The word motivation acts as a reference that guide the trainee thinking, feeling and action will become the subject. This Herzberg’s findings have showed that there are some characteristics of job that can lead to job satisfaction and even otherwise too. So for example, factors for satisfaction such as achievement, recognition, responsibility can eventually lead to satisfaction which can lastly related to job performance.
In this Herzberg motivation theory there are two factors involved which is the motivator factors and hygiene factors. Motivator factors was needed in order to motivate the employee to performance well and give their very best in any work they do, however the hygiene factors more needed to make sure that the employees are not dissatisfied where it may affect the job performance of an organization. Motivators will lead to satisfaction because of the need for growth and also for their self achievement. However, the lack of motivators can literally leads to over concentration on the hygiene factors which are those negative factor where it can form the basis of complaint and concern in any ways.
2.2 Concept of Supervisory Support
Supervisory support can be defined to where the leaders in an organization value and appreciate their employees’ work, contributions and even they also care about their well being. In a simple word, we can say that the leader with a higher supervisory support is the one who will care, hear, and even guide and value their employees’ needs and well being. Even it is very easy to hear and see but it eventually become the hardest part to be done when an employee is being promoted to a supervisor and he or she haven to start doing all those things in order to increase the employee’s job performance in the organization.
Supervisory support will be more effective if the supervisor is very supportive and cared and valued their employees. This kind of supervisor will make a lot of differences in the employees’ everyday work environment. For example, when an employee entered work and the supervisor wished for their day to be good and support them, the hole day the employee mood will be good even with a lot of workloads. Supervisor plays an important role an the employees’ life. Strong supervisor support can help to improve and changed the quality of employment to best and better ones. This support also associated with job satisfaction where it leads to job performance, perceptions of a better fit the employee and organization and lastly even helps to reduces the employee turnover which is very common in many cases these days.
2.2.1 Theory Related in the Supervisory Support
The theory that related to supervisory support is the organization support theory. The organization objectives, goals and even intentions is related to the action of the supervisor. According to Linda Rhoades and Robert Eisenberger (2002), organization support theory also supposes that to determine the organization’s readiness to reward increased work effort and to meet socio emotional needs, employee develop global beliefs concerning the extend to which their organization values their contributions and cares for their well being. (Eisenberger, Huntington, Hutchison, & Sowa, 1986 ; Shore & Shore, 1995).
Supervisor roles is very important as supervisor can help to increase the job performance of an employee with the help of motivation too. Supervisors need to have knowledge and skills in the particular areas such as planning, budgeting, organizing and even developing and evaluating human resources programs. This is because supervisor is the first person that an employee will find in order to gain information for that particular areas that they work on. Besides that, supervisor also need to provide encouragement and support to their employee in order for them to build motivation among themselves and it can eventually related to satisfaction ad lastly job performance.
For an organization to run smoothly and successfully, supervisor need to use their skills and knowledge to empower their employees. Furthermore, supervisor will evaluate their employees by giving feedback on what they are doing right, how to improve it to give better results and also can give some suggestions on how to settle the work in a short period of time but with best results as well. Every word by the supervisor is actually a small motivation tat have been given to the employees. Supervisor also are there to give negative and positive reinforcement when needs and they even uses motivation theories to empower their employees.
2.3 Concept of Job Performance
According to Business Dictionary, the definition for job performance is the work related activities expected of an employee and how well those activities were executed. This job performance have been the most important dependent variables and have been studies for a long decade. Performance is a multidimensional concept.
According to Campbell, performance is known as a behavior. It is something that ie been done by employees. Performance and outcomes have some differences between them. Outcomes is more about the individual performance results and it also result from some other influences. Performance does not have to directly observable actions of an employee. It consists of mental production such as decisions or even answers. However, performance needed to be under an individual’s control such as the supervisor.
Job performance is divided into task and contextual performance. Task performance was defined as effectiveness with which job incumbents perform activities that contribute to the organization’s technical core (Borman and Motowidlo, 1997). however, contextual performance was defined as performances that is not formally required as part of the job but that helps to shape the social and psychological context of the organization (Borman and Motowidlo, 1993).
2.3.1 Theory Related to Job Performance
The theory that related to job performance is the Maslow’s hierarchy need theory. This Maslow theory is one of the best known theories of motivation. Maslow first introduced the hierarchy of needs in 1943. Maslow believed that people have a certain desire to be self actualized, that is to be all that they can. In order to achieve the ultimate goals, a person need to have a certain number of basic needs such as safety, love, food, and even self esteem.
Maslow’s hierarchy is often looked as a pyramid that have certain level to achieved. In order to achieve the upper level, a person should achieve the bottom level first in order to go the next level. The lowest level of this Maslow hierarchy are made up of basic needs while the complex needs are remain in higher top level. This theory consist of five levels. First is the physiological needs. This needs are probably fairly apparent where these are the things which is vital to our survival. This needs consist of food, water, sleep, clothes and even homeostasis.
Next is the security and safety needs. In this level it start to be a bit more complex. Safety and security become the primary needs in this level. In this stage, people want to have control and order of their own lives. Examples of needs in this level is the financial security, helath and wellness and even safety against injury and accidents. This security and safety needs will eventually motivated some actions such as finding a job, contributing some money into the savings account or even moving into a safer neighbourhood.
Besides that, is the level of social needs. Social needs in this level such as belonging, acceptance and even love. This level is more about emotional relationship driven in human behavior. Some things needed to be satisfy in this level such as family, friendships, social group, community group and even romantic attachments. This level needed to be achieve in order to avoid loneliness, depression and even anxiety. People need to be loved and cared by their family and friends and even surroundings too.
Furthermore, the fourth level in this Maslow hierarchy is the esteem needs which is also known as respect ad appreciation level. After the below three levels are been achieved, this fourth level will begin to play a more prominent role in motivating behavior of a person. Respect and appreciation can be seen when their work and accomplishment is been praised and talked proud about. In addition self esteem and personal worth is very important in this stage. For example, esteem needs will be fulfill when we participate in professional activities, become an athletic or team participation and even academic accomplishments. Lack in self esteem and respect will cause to develop feelings of inferiority.
Last level will be the self actualization needs. This will be the very peak level in this Maslow of hierarchy. This level if more like ” What a man can be, he must be,” where it refer to the need of people to achieve their full potential as human beings. According to Kendra, in Maslow theory, self actualization definition is more like “it may be loosely described as the full use of talents, capabilities and even potentialities. Such people seem to be fulfilling themselves with the things that they are best at and capable of doing so”. Self actualizing people is very much as self aware where they concern about their personal growth, less concern about others’ opinion and comments and they even take this opportunities to fulfill their potential to maximum level.
2.4 Conceptual Framework
Independent Variable Mediating Dependent variable
Motivation to learn
Figure 1: Conceptual Framework of the Research
2.5 Hypotheses of Study
These study is to attempt to examine the mediating role that supervisory support in the relationship between motivation to learn and job performance. Thus the following are hypothesized.
H1: There is a significant relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performance
H2: There is a significant relationship between extrinsic motivation and job performance
H3: Supervisory support mediates the relationship between intrinsic motivation and job performance
H4: Supervisory support mediates the relationship between extrinsic motivation and job performance
Literature reviews of the theoretical models and variety of approaches to job performance provides conceptual background to strengthen the argument of this research. The formulation of the hypotheses will able the researcher to proceed with the test on the topic. Research methods will be discussed on the next chapter.