Communication may be commonly assumed to be a simple two-way exchange of information

Communication may be commonly assumed to be a simple two-way exchange of information. However, it is much more than that in health and social care, for much of time, it is necessary to have communication that demonstrates compassion where one must be receptive to another’s communication and put him/her self in the others place. Patients and service users can be extremely anxious as to what might lei ahead. The impact of a kind and compassionate approach should never be underestimated. This assignment will address important of communications at St. Vincent Hospital. It will be focus on two type of communication theory observed in St. Vincent hospital The methods used in dealing with suitable communication method and will be reviewed , discussed and strategies used to support in the department will be analysed.
Apply two different theories of communication and state how you have observed these being used within St Vincent
Communication plays a vital role in health and social care. Effective communication permits improving interpersonal relationships. There are various type of communication theories which stems from the humanistic, behaviourist, cognitive, and psychoanalytical. However this assignment will be focus on two theories, humanistic and behaviourist theories.
According to (Adams,2007) Humanistic psychological ideas could be regarded as a reaction to some of the more obviously scientific approaches based on personality measurement and the observation of behaviour. Humanistic ideas derived from existential philosophy have influenced humanistic approaches to helping people. One of the key terms signalling these approaches is person centred. Adam(2007), developed the nation of the client as the expert, which has echoes in the current emphasis in the NHS on the expert patients.
This theory has relevance on communication in the health and social care sector especially for the team at St. Vincent hospital. As an example clients who comes to St. Vincent hospitals are mainly from middle east countries and other countries to get medical services at a cost. As about 45% of patients are from abroad and they are private clients who brings money to the hospital, when dealing with these patients as an individual service user, we must recognise they are primary individuals and their action by whole experience at the hospital not as single moment in time. At St. Vincent hospital I observed staff are well communicated effectively with the patients. The patients who comes to get treatments are treated as individual clients and permitted them to speak and express their feelings. Also I observed team at St. Vincent hospital were non-judgemental treated to all the patients equally with out being racist or discriminated. Most of the clients are from middle east countries and different background they were given opportunity to speak up for their needs and permitted to make informed choices and chances.
oundations of Health and Social Care
edited by Robert Adams 2007 2nd edition Palgrave macmillan New York
Also I observed St. Vincent hospital team were applying applied Maslow’s Hierarchy theory of needs to the clients. Maslow’s hierarchy of need is a based on the theory that one level must be met before moving on to the next level. Such as Self actualization which means morality, creativity and problem solving skills. Esteem, for a example confidence, self esteem, achievements, and respect. Belongingness which means love, friendship, intimacy and family. Safety means security of environment, employment, resources, health, property . And last physiological level in here they meet air, foods, water ,sex, sleep and other factors towards homeostasis. According to the finders St. Vincent team are being treated to the service uses in fair manner and they felt much more confidence with the service providers. I observed St. Vincent hospital team shares with the patients all features being human to extent that trust, self-discloser and feed back occur, that helps them to find out how happy are the clients are and how to improve their services according to the demand from their clients. Which helps to increase private clients to the hospital to bring more income. This pattern of communication is more dialogical rather than mammalogical communication.
Cognitive behavioural approach derives from behaviourist psychologists such as B.F Skinner and learning theories such as Albert Bandura. Methods of changing behaviour based on rewarding desired behaviour and punishing undesired behaviour thereby hopefully reinforcing the extinguishing the latter. Cognitive behaviour therapy draws on the scientific approach of behaviourism as well a highlighting personal awareness which is central to cognitive psychology. Cognitive behavioural therapy has become one of the main approaches for dealing effectively with a wide range of psychological disorders, and this has led to a large increase in the training of health professionals in this approach especially with in the St. Vincent hospital.

The Philosophy of Cognitive-behavioural Therapy (CBT): Stoic Philosophy 2010
Karnamc Book Ltd, London
By Donald Robertson
I observed Cognitive behaviour therapy has been adapted for patients in St. Vincent hospital, because patients are divers levels of education and income as well as variety of cultures and ages from young children to older adults. Therefore St. Vincent team used it in primary care and other medical offices among settings. As an example used in group, couple, and family formats because treatment to each individuals can be different from others, So some patients such as those who suffer from schizophrenia, often cannot tolerate a full session therefore staff apply cognitive behaviour therapy for time frame such as 45 minutes. Cognitive theory helps to understand how negative thoughts of people’s effect to their behaviour or treatments. As an example if some one refusing to get treatment because he/she think she is far to fat or skinny, understanding those negative thoughts will overcome and help to treat to those patients as they desire.
Behaviourist theory of communication
Behavioural Theory relates to how people behave to sort out some ways of dealing with people for effectiveness through acting, thinking and feeling. An example in health and social care setting is where colleagues at work provide services to service users in a positive manner that can help in monitoring the behaviour of the individual in respect of the well being. As a member of St. Vincent hospital this approach was applied by all of the team members. As an example when down syndrome patients from middle east country comes to get treatments, he was very aggressive and impatient. Therefore he was very hard to control to treat him, team has applied behaviourist behaviour theory and they listen to the patients very clearly and tried to speak with him in very simple language rather than complicated sentence, because he wasn’t able to speak English properly. Also staff change his room to much more quitter room to feel him so relax and used familiar faces regularly rather than changing more staff for him. It works and he started to be calm and relax they carried on same procedure until he discharge from the hospital. Also I observed team always had good eye contact with their patients and it was very compassionate. Also they show positive regards and emphasise with the clients. Before they start to treat every patients staff carefully refer their care plans or medical history to understand patients before treating or caring. Also because most of their privet patients are from overseas country especially middle east countries staff were understand about their cultural and religious belief, this was another part of good sign to communicate with the patients.
In conclusion theories can be different to use for communication progress but understanding about these theories will be provide additional strength to work in any different field in health and social care sector.

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Task 1.2
Discuss St Vincent hospital what type of communication skills you have used
This discussion will be based on which type of communication skills used by the St. Vincent hospital team and how they have been effective to increase their services. Understanding and using effective communication methods will refer to the ability of the individual to interact with others in professional contrast. Keep a communicating profile or passport for each and individual clients are very effective in many ways. A communication profile or communication passport will inform staff on how the service user communicates with others and wishes to be communicating the same way with the individual. The profile or passport will need to be updated regularly. This tool can be used for all individuals, e.g: people with a learning disability or physical disability, people who have had a stroke, those who are blinds or deaf etc.
Non verbal Communication Skill
Non verbal communication skills accounts for 70 percent of all patients of St.Vincent hospital. Because most of them are from different countries and different back ground, therefore having very good understand of non verbal communication theory , team has applied for to resolve the problems and overcome negative impact to the hospital. Non verbal communication is mean use signs and other method with out using words. This I found to be very effective as most patients does not speak English. All of the staff trying their best to use their body language to maximum effect, eye contact, movement and direction of gaze. In some case lip reading and sign language were very effective. Also I observed culturally staff are very sensitive and they asked permission to touch anyone knowing that their cultural value and belief. Also I found staff tried to vigorously move their hands as that might suggest anger or aggressive outburst.
Verbal communication Skill
Verbal communication is how patients, their families or friend and relatives use to express their desires though out the words. All the time I found out the staff used very clear and simple language to their patients, so they can understand clearly without having doubt about what staff are saying. It helps to understand about treatments what they having and what are the meals available to eat etc… Also they always used patients names to call them rather than using pet names such as e.g. love, darling, dear etc.. Also I observed all the staff never talk about other patients medical records or other personal things front of others and also they speak all the time using beautiful language such as “please” “Thank you”. Tone of speak will also effect on patients and hospital’s reputation, because non of the people does not like if someone raising their voice when having conversation with each other. Therefore I used soft and clear tone when I speak with the patients and with other staff members. Also when I answer to the telephone I am trying my best to speak slowly, clearly with appropriate manner as well other staff members. When I have to send e mails or text massages we always typing in official way rather than using general talk. Because at St. Vincent we do our job in our best, therefore keeping good official contacts with other fellow colleagues will keep good verbal communication. Also when I reply to patients or their family’s I respect to their cultural and religious backgrounds and reply with good manner not to heart their feelings.
In conclusion communication skills are effectively help to people to keep their good relationship and also it will encourage service users to use service providers more times in future and keep good reputation of the hospital.
Task 1.3
Within St Vincent hospital when inappropriate interpersonal communication arises between individuals review and discuss what methods are employed in dealing with this
According to the West and Turner () Interpersonal communication as the process of message transaction between people to create and sustain shared meaning. There are three critical components embedded in this definition : process, message exchange and shared meaning. Let’s look at each in turn.
When we state that interpersonal communication is a process, we mean that it is an ongoing, unending vibrant activity that is always changing. When we entre into an interpersonal communication exchange, we are entering into an event with no definable beginning or ending, and one that is irreversible. For example, consider the moment when we first meet and begin communication with classmates during a small group activity in class. Interpersonal Communication is face to face verbal or non-verbal exchange of information and feelings between two or more people. Each time a service provider has contact with a client, communication is taking place.

Within St.Vincent hospital inappropriate interpersonal communication constitutes breach of confidentially, and trust, lack of dignity or respect, self presentation, abuse of power, invasion of privacy, incongruent: unrelated messages and poor self concept. Racism: any attitude, action or institution structure which subordinates a person because oh his colour. Sexism: an attitude action or institution structure which subordinates person because of his or her sex.
Beach of confidentiality
In order to deal with inappropriate interpersonal communication high level of confidentiality need to be maintained. Health care professionals have a duty of care about their service users confidentiality ( information and trust worthy). If care workers are careless with information about clients, the trust upon which the care relationship is built will be lost. Clients and patients have many rights in respect of confidential information. Some of these rights are enshrined in law. The Data protection act 1984, the Access to Health Records Act 1990 and the Access to Personal filesAct1987 all set out the legal rights of health and social care service users. Both the legislation and local procedures establish the requirement of care workers to breach confidentiality where risk to the clients or other exists. It should be apparent that the essence of the care values is the importance of the clients as a person In every conceivable situation. The choices, wishes and needs of clients are the main determinates of service provision. However, in ascertaining the client’s views and need, much information need to be obtained and much of that information must be recorded and share with others. The privileged position of care workers in determining and maintaining information about the individuals who use services has often been taken for granted. At worst breach of confidentiality involve careless talk about clients with others, sometimes where it can be overheard.

Lack of dignity
Dignity matters, because it is what patients and users of service want. It is critical that providers of health care make sure that patients and users of their service maintain their dignity and privacy and are treated with respect. Dignity can be a difficult term to define – it is perhaps easier to identify those situation where dignity is compromised. Such as
Being addressed in an appropriate manner or being spoken about as if they were not there.

Not being given proper information
Not seeking patients consent or considering their wishes
Being left in soiled clothes or being exposed in an embarrassing manner
Not being given appropriate food or help with eating or drinking.

Being placed in mixed sex accommodation
Being left in pain
A noisy environment at night causing a lack of sleep
Being subject to abuse and violent behaviour
Any loss of dignity can cause significant distree and diminish the confidence that people have in their health care service. Organisation such as St. Vincent that have respect dignity and privacy have taken an important step towards putting patients and users of services at the heart of their work.
Abuse
Abuse is mistreatment by any other person or persons that violates a person’s human and civil rights. The abuse can vary from treating someone with disrespect in a way which significantly affects the person’s quality of life, to causing actual physical suffering. Abuse can happen anywhere – in a residential or nursing home, a hospital, in the workplace, at a day centre or educational establishment, in supported housing or in the street.

The forms of abuse which will help to be aware of and to understand are abuses which are suffered by individuals at the hands of someone who is providing care for them. Abusers can parents, informal care, care professionals and or police and practices of the care setting it self.
Physical abuse such as hitting, pushing, pinching, shaking, misusing medication, scalding, restraint, hair pulling.

Sexual abuse such as rape, sexual assault, or sexual acts to which the adult has not or could not have consented, or to which they were pressurised into consenting. Sexual abuse whether of adults or children can never be considered to give informed consent to any sexual activity of any description. In the case of adults consent may not be given and the sexual activity is either forced on individual against his or her will or the individual is tricked or bribed into it. Sexual activity is abusive when informed consent is not freely given. This might involve one service user abusing another more vulnerable service user. Therefore St. Vincent team must important to recognise the different between the freely consenting sexual activity of adults who also happen to be service users, and those situation where abuse is taking place because someone is exploiting his or her position of relative power.

Psychological or emotional abuse such as threats of harm or abandonment, being deprived of social or any other form of contact, humiliation, blaming, controlling, intimidation, coercion, harassment, verbal abuse, being prevented from receiving services or support.

Financial or material abuse such as theft, fraud or exploitation, pressure in connection with wills, property, or inheritance, misuse of property, possessions or benefits.

Neglect such as ignoring medical or physical care needs and preventing access to health, social care or educational services or withholding the necessities of life such as food, drink and heating.

This occurs when either a care worker or an informal carer fails to meet the care need of a person. As a result of neglect, individuals can become ill, hungry, cold, dirty, injured or deprived of their nights.
In most of this causes occur because care workers may not have been trained properly or because they work in a setting where the emphasis is on cost saving rather than care provision. In these circumstance it becomes a from of institutional abuse. Also it is not possible accurately to predict situations where abuse will take place a great deal of miserly could be saved if it were. It is possible though to identify some factors which seem to make it more likely that abuse could occur. This does not mean that abuse will definitely happen- neither should assume that all people in these circumstance are potential abusers. But is does mean that St. Vincent should be aware of the possibility when they are dealing with these situations.
To over come this situations St. Vincent hospital team must take must follow communication methods. Communication is much more than words. The tone of voice what we speak, attention what we give when some one speaking, message what we give to our clients or patients moving our body or eye contact also can be the communication.
St Vincent team must follow these important communication aspects to over situations above mentioned. Listening and attending ( including patients and family members) Non verbal communication ( because most of their private clients are from different countries) questioning. It is very important to remember that our communication abilities will develop gain experience as a health are provider. Because we have to communicate with the patients or clients on a daily basis and it will develop our personal skills.

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