Entereobacter is a Gram-negative, C.rod shaped and facultative anaerobic bacteria. It belong to the family Entereobacteriaceae. They are non-spore forming bacteria. It causes urinary and respiratory tract infection in an immunocompromised hosts. Entereobacter is a coliform group of bacteria it does not belong to facultatively anaerobic group of bacteria. Entereobacter aerogenes and Entereobacter cloacae are clinically important species (Lucet et al., 1996).
Entereobacter species cause a wide variety of nosocomial infection, including respiratory, urinary tract infection, and neonatal sepsis with meningitis (Schaberg, Culver, & Gaynes, 1991). Entereobacter species have a number of virulence factors but siderophones to acquire iron and adhesions endotoxin are common.
1.8.2 Pneumonitis: –
Entereobacter species are the 3rd most common nosocomial causative agent. Colonization from infection area is extremely difficult, unless the patient have same strain of Entereobacter in respiratory tract secretions, and blood stream.
In vitro resistance to fourth generation cephalosporins requires two separate mutations namely loss of a porin protein effecting the permeability of the cell wall to these agents as well as overproduction of Ampc beta-lactamase. Therefore, in-vitro systems the mutation rate for fourth generation cephalosporins is lower than that for third generation cephalosporins (Bouza & Cercenado, 2002).
1.9 STIPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS: –
Staphylococcus was first reported by surgeon Sir Alexander Ogston, in surgical abscess of knee joint. Staphylococcus aureus belongs to the Staphylococcaceae family. Including humans it affects all other mammalian species. Staphylococcus, it’s a Greek word `Staphyle` which means bunch of grapes, that is it due to its appearance in microscope in the form of clusters. Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacteria round in shape and it is predominant on skin, and respiratory tract. Pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus includes food poisoning, abscesses sinusitis, and skin infection. It can excrete some potent toxin which induce infection and also express cell surface proteins which inactivate antibodies (Lowy, 1998).
1.9.1 PATHOGENESIS: –
Staph aureus may lead to lung infections, or pneumonia, skin infections such as pimples, impetigo etc. scalded skin syndrome and abscesses, boils, cellulitis folliculitis, carbuncles, bone infections or osteomyelitis.