In the early twentieth century most of Europe had modern political systems unlike Russia as it was still ruled by the monarch which was an autocrat which controlled the whole country and its power was unlimited by laws or any institutions. The old fashioned government prevented russia from advancing. The ruler in russia was called the Tsar, which claimed to rule by ‘divine right’. In fact the russian orthodox churches supported the tsar and encouraged ordinary Russians to accept and embrace autocracy as the church was also supported by the Tsar. Nicholas II who was the last Tsar was unquestioned and remained out of the touch with the people problems. His power was based on the military and the okrahana which were the secret police who spied on everyone so that if someone spoke against the government was punished. Nicholas government was poorly run and such civil and other rights were not given to the people even freedom of expression was limited by censorship.