In traditional medicine systems like siddha ayurvedha, homeopathi,and naturopathi the herbal drug is a chief constituent. The naturally available herbals are considred as safer than the other sources of medicines (Abhishek K. et al, 2006). All the indigenous systems use several plant species to treat different ailments (Rabe and Staden, 1997). Many infectious diseases have been treated with herbals throughout the history of mankind, the importance and the contribution of many plant families in medicine such as Asteraceae, Liliaceae, Apocynaceae, Solanaceae, Caesalpinaceae, Rutaceae,Piperaceae, Sapotaceae have been highlighted by a number of scientific investigations. In the development of new drugs the medicinal plants play a vital role (Sheetal Verma and S.P. Singh, 2008). In medical industry, many pharmaceutical drugs are derived from plants that were first used in traditional systems of medicine (Fabricant D.S, and Farnsworth N.R., 2001), and according to the World Health Organization ?25% of medicines are plant-derived. For most of the ailments of man the traditional system like folk remedies from plants have always guided scientists in search of new medications. (Achterberg J., 2013).
As the allopathic medicines give toxicity and side effects, the use of alternative herbal medicines became popular. This led to the rapid increase in the formulation of a number of herbal drugs (Agarwal, 2005). Medicinal plants are used in the production of potent therapeutic agents and the usage has been calculated as 80% by the people in developing countries. They are still using the traditional medicines largely based on plants for their primary health care. There are kinds of literature available in the ancient literature for more than 500 plants with medicinal their medicinal uses, and around 800 plant species in usage in indigenous medicine systems. India is a very important resource of biodiversity and has innumerable medicinal plants which are being used in traditional medicine system (Chopra et al., 1956).
It is very important that the correct identification is needed for the therapeutically useful plant species. The exact study of morphological features of the reproductive parts includes flowers, small fruits and seeds such as shape, size, color, dimension, and microstructure would be very useful for the taxonomical studies. The anatomical features are also useful in the plant diagnostics and to distinguish from related species (Karamian et al., 2012).
All living things, from the bacterial cell to the millions of cells in plants, produce chemicals for their survival and livelihood. The compounds produced by biological systems are usually divided into two distinct groups: i) primary metabolites – chemical substances (e.g., carbohydrates, amino acids, proteins, and lipids) essential for cell maintenance, growth and development; ii) secondary metabolites – substances of low-molecular-weight like phenolic acids, alkaloids are relevant to increase the overall surviving and given protection ability (Azmir et al., 2013; Scalbert & Williamson, 2000). The studies of bioactive phytochemical compounds in plants need of proper methods of extraction (Hern_andez, Lobo, & Gonz_alez, 2009).
Herbal plants contain physiologically active chemical compounds which have antioxidant and antimicrobial properties (Srinivasan D et al., 2001). There are a number of commonly used antioxidants like propyl gallate (PG), butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and tort-butylhydroxytoluene (TBHQ) ( Sherwin FR. 1990) The use of synthetic antioxidants are suspected that being reason for causing carcinogenesis and serious liver damage in laboratory animals ( Sherwin FR. 1990; Wichi HP. 1998). For this reason, there is increasing interest in inventing naturally occurring antioxidants to replace synthetic antioxidants.
Gram-negative bacteria will be challenging by their Multidrug-resistant infections, and have emerged as a global health concern. (Xu ZQ, Flavin MT & Flavin J. 2014). The phytochemicals with antimicrobial property present in plants inhibit microbial growth and give good results comparatively than the presently used antimicrobial drugs and may have significant microbial resistant value (Eloff JN. 1998). Therefore there is a requirement in developing alternative natural anti-bacterial drugs from natural sources especially in plants.
Nowadays people are largely affected by a number of non-contagious metabolic disorders like diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, obesity and so on. Among these, Obesity is a rapidly growing epidemic worldwide, presenting an increase in the risk of morbidity and mortality in many countries across the world (World Health Organization 2002). The World Health Organization (WHO) defines obesity as an abnormal or excessive fat accumulation detrimental to human health. Today more than 1.1 billion people are overweight worldwide and 312 million are classified as obese (P.Hossain et al., 2007).
Hyperlipidemia is a negative condition on which abnormally high level of lipids are found in the blood or elevated level of serum lipid profiles(Shaik Rasheed Pasha, 2014). When more amount of fat is consumed, the levels of VLDL increases which may get stick on the walls of blood vessels. The insufficient level of HDL leads to hyperlipidemia and also atherosclerosis. It is also associated with diabetes mellitus. During diabetic conditions, the composition and concentration of lipid may vary. Metabolic derangements like insulin deficiency in diabetic patients can cause hyperlipidemia by stimulating lipolysis in adipose tissue (Neelapu Neelima, 2011).
The invention of alternate medicines from plant sources for these problems became essential. The leguminous plants are used by the people for food and various medicinal purposes. Seeds of Legumes provide good nutrients high-quality dietary protein and so considered very important sources to fulfill the nutrient requirements (Perumal et al., 2001). Some of the legumes which not have commercial value offer a good scope in this context are still under-utilized (Bhag Mal, 1992).
The plant Rhynchosia rufescens is one of the tribal pulses belongs to the family Fabaceae is being widely used by tribal people for various ailments and distributed in India, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Campodia, Indonesia, and Malaysia. The amino acid composition and essential the amino acid score of total seed protein in Rhynchosia rufescens are found to be higher than those of FAD/WHO (1991) recommended pattern (Kalidass, C. and Mohan, V. R. 2012). Leaf decoction of R.rufescens is administered for abortion for the first three months (Ajesh T.P., et al., 2012). The plant is being used widely by the tribal people of different part of the world for different ailments, but there is lack of scientific and documentation. Since there was not found any scientific records, the present study of “MORPHO-ANATOMICAL, PHYTOCHEMICAL AND ANTI-OBESITY PROPERTIES OF Rhynchosia rufescens (Willd)DC. SEEDS ON TRITAN-X 100 INDUCED HYPERLIPIDEMIC ALBINO RATS” is being reported for the first time and could be very useful criteria for identification and further usage of the species.