left31750 Assignment Brief and Cover Sheet EduQual – DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT

left31750
Assignment Brief and Cover Sheet
EduQual – DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT (SCQF LEVEL 11)
Learner Name: Miriam Kanhai
Assignment Title: Resourcing,talent management and development and employee resourcing /Task 2 Assignment Reference:12/15311/eduQual
Unit Title(s): Resourcing,talent management and development and employee resourcing /Unit 2
Date issued to learner: 29/01/18 Hand-in Deadline:
Actual date submitted: 29/04/18
Name of Assessor(s): S. Gandhimathi
Introduction
Salamon (2000:03) defined employee relations as a set of phenomena both inside and outside the work place, concerned with determining and regulating the employment relationship. This study is going to discuss the theoretical perspective of employee relations as follows;
Unitary Perspective
This unitary perspective is more of collectivism, the employer and the employees they work together as a team. Decisions are not imposed on employees but are done collectively with the voice of employees. They have mutual understanding in the world of work. In other words they administer industrial relations collectively because they are a team and in particular industrial relations and its Administration.
Under this perspective there is not conflicts because the parties collectively work together on issues of employment relations. In this regard the conflicts are based on perceptions, the more transparency the organization is the lesser the perceptions of inequality and the lesser the conflicts.

Trade unions in unitary perspective are not important but however since there is a fundamental rights of the employee if they choose to join the Trade unions. Trade union is regarded as unfortunate because they do not have much work to do since both parties understand each other and they work together as a team.

In unitary, Collective Bargaining Agreement is being done at the workplace through the works Council since there not conflicts that can be imposed to the other party so they collectively work together in the works council. In Collective Bargaining agreement the parties listens to the facts submitted by other party to enable them to slide from the initial position of bargaining.

Pluralistic
This perspective the pluralistic which is based on interest and divergence. It is said the parties in the employment relations have got conflicting interest. The interest of employees is survival, they want more money or more wages but the employer want more profits. For these interest and divergence the employer will fight for more profits because of the finance principle which says, if you want to maximize on profits you minimize on operational cost so if you want to have more wages you need to reduce wages, so because of that tension conflicts are in season. The rise of conflicts are caused by interest and divergence.

In Collective Bargaining Agreement both parties have frequently bargain because they know each other. When there some changes in cost of living they all continue to bargain. Trade Unions are used by employees in bargaining given the tension and power of the employee. Trade unions are advocacy for the employees in this regard. Trade unions are accepted because of the Collective bargaining, they say there is a greater bargain power. Rules in this pluralist are needed and they are plenty can come in the form of policies and procedures to be followed by both parties. Policies will define how things are to be done failure on the part of employees would constitute on act of misconduct and on the employer it would be unfair labour practice.

Maxist perspective
This perspective is based on the capitalist ideology and this ideology it is also known as radical perspective. Labour Alination means being separated from the production of your own labour. This Labour Alination is said everything is privately owned and controlled even the workers. When you are contracted it means you privately owned and control by management.

Capitalist advances issues of profit because it is privately owned controlled and they also embrace the issue of profit notion. Maxist defines wage as an unpaid labour
In this ideology there is a list of Labour exploitation, they talk of multi skilling, productivity. This means one person must be able to deliver output given by 2 people. When they talk of multi-skilling means shares where one can be given so many work to do and not paid for that, this unpaid labour.
Conflicts in this ideology is usually there because of oppression and exploitation. The use of power give rise to the extent that of exploitation. And to the extent that A Fox, Flanders concluded that sometimes it is not exploitation that makes the insubordination but it is the subordination that makes the exploitive because one can be so subordinate to the extent of just accepting everything.
But it can be neutralized by the Government where salvation comes from, on the issue of who is more powerful and less power. Trade unions is needed in this channels of powers. Trade unions are tolerated to challenge the power of management on matters of employment. CBA is done through Trade union because the management do not want to pay from the definition of unpaid labour.

INDIVIDUALISM AND COLLECTIVISM
The politico-economic system and the extent of the Government’s involvement in that system are both reflected in labour relations. In an individualistic free enterprise or market economy, the means of production and the objects of consumption are privately controlled. Sales occur for profit which inheres in the owners of the enterprise. Inequalities of income and wealth are believed to measure, however roughly, the economic contribution of those who invest their energies and resources in the productive process.

In a collectivist system, it is believed that the means of production and distribution should be collectively owned or controlled (or both) and not left to the action of individuals pursuing self-interest. Socialism, communism and other collectivist ideologies proclaim the desirability of such control through public ownership in the interests of the community as a whole.

Psychological contract
Psychological contract is unwritten contracts or beliefs and it is a mutual obligation based on the promises that both parties may invest in their relationship in expectation of the outcome (Anderson ; Schalk, 1998). Motivated employee behavior can be a result of embracing the personal goals with the goals of the organization. The goals of the organization and employees can be intergrated as long as their expectations are done during negotiation phase. For example an employee expects a job for life as a psychological contract while the employer expects to be respected and that employees would be faithful and committed to perform.

ENVIRONMENTAL INFLUENCES ON EMPLOYMENT RELATIONS
The concepts and practices of employment relations are dramatically changing in response to changes in the environment. Labour relations practitioners should take into account of such changes that may affect industrial relations in their organisations. All of the changes that have taken place through economic, political, social, legislative and technological – have some effects on employment relations in all enterprises.

 ECONOMIC ENVIRONMENT
Economic environment have effects on employment relations through the rate of unemployment. Unemployment is the number of unemployed people who are able bodied. If the rate of unemployment is very high as it is in Zimbabwe, employees have no bargaining power.
Inflation – In Zimbabwe inflation has caused the rise in the prices and disappearing of original goods in the supermarket. For many years Zimbabwe is still struggling to maintain the prices because of high inflation. There is a high demand of wages while at the same time most companies are struggling to survive and end up closing. Trade unions are failing to stand in for employees because the situation itself is no favourable. It is very difficult for organization to attract investors to come and invest. For example the situation that Zimbabwe was through in 2007-2008 where bearers where changing into quintillions within a day and food was scarce.

Technology- Some changes in area of technology has an impact to the labour relations. Labour has been replaced by machines. For example, machines have substituted labour and this will increase the unemployment. This may result in retrenchments. Employees can have a negative attitude towards the new technology. For example, introduction of Mobile banking in Zimbabwe has reduced most of the bank tellers redundant and may face retrenchments.

POLITICAL ENVIRONMENT
Politics is found in the workplace. People have different views in areas such as the use of power over others. This may affect employment relations.
Peace can be found in a stable political environment but if there is no peace at the workplaces strikes and industrial relations are likely to happen. However in a political environment, different parties (employers, trade unions, individuals, politicians) will exercise power over the others taking advantage of the prevailing political changes.

Political instability affects investor confidence and operations of industries which further affects employment relations. For example in Zimbabwe investors have not had confidence which attract industries to the extend of industry operating below 40% production capacity leading to massive retrenchments across industries.

LEGAL ENVIRONMENT
Professor Kahn-Freud has identified three legal functions which the State performs in industrial relations (Labour and the Law 1972). First, the “regulatory function” in which it provides rules that governs the employment conditions of individual employees, whether or not they are union members. Second, the “restrictive function” in which it provides rules that govern the conduct of industrial conflict, i.e. restricting the lawful ambit of industrial action. Third, the “auxiliary function” in which it provides rules that govern the encouragement and extension of collective bargaining institutions. In reality there is a great overlap between these functions, but as tools of analysis they are quite useful
In Zimbabwe the legal environment is shaped by the political wave, for example the introduction of the indegineous and economic empowerment which demand 51% from foreign owned companies to local investors affected companies leading to business restructuring and retrenchments since 2010.

The roles of employment law
The following roles are discussed below;
Equal Opportunity
The main function is to provide applicants and employees with equal access to employment and fair treatment in the workplace. Equal opportunity it is for every able bodied person regardless of sex, region, gender and race. It is important that the employers give opportunities to workers without discrimination.

Pay Equity
Pay equity is a mandatory to every employees to receive his or her dues for the work he or she done. The concept of equal pay for equal work prohibits employers to use their different pay scale regardless of race, sex etc. It is an obligation for employers to pay every employee equally.

Workplace Safety
Employers should provide a safe work environment and employees should be protected at any cost. It is a requirement that the employer should provide a safe work environment. The employer should record all accidents, minor or major for which can be used when implementing some measures.
The role of the Government in employee relations
Proffessor OHO Khun Freud (1972) gave the following roles; Legal role- to ensure that there is fairness in the word of work and that disputes are handled expeditiously for the betterment of the economy. Reconcilition of parties and world unnecessary strikes which affects productivity and economy performance. Fair treatment of emloyees – avoiding unfair dismissals and advancing fair remunerations and good working conditions. The government also has a role of creating employment for example overstating, ministries and local councils to reduce levels of unemployment which has social and economic consequences e.g social illness.

Changes in trade unionism have affected employee relations.
The effect of changes has resulted in more focus of organizations on the welfare of the employee, their participation, employee development, health and safety remuneration policies. These changes assisted in concentrating on the relationship of individual workers with management and eradicating the root causes of misunderstandings. Trade unions also steal employees loyalty to employer because they know they are represented in any disciplinary process.

The role of management in employment relations within an organisations
Management has a role to play in employment relations. The role of management is to manage employees as a resource and production, effective utilization of company resources so that goals are attained, managing cost to ensure profits for the business. Management of disputes and grievances which affect productivity. Management should ensure that employees are protected. Health and safety of employees should be established such that egornomics conditions should be addressed by the employer or the operation should be stopped if it is not safe. It the role of management to put all measures to reduce accidents.

QUESTION 2
This paper is going to dwell on the Commercial banks in Zimbabwe which will highlight the importance of employee relations for organizational performance.

Introduction
Employee relations means working together of employers and employees for the achievement of their organisational goals. This can be achieved by showing respect with each other and building trust between the employer and the employee. This means that both the employer and the employee should commit themselves for the achievement of the goals of the organizations.

Employment relations strategies
Organisations should exercise a better employee relations whether they are registered or not registered with trade unions. A good strategy of a good employee relations is to meet the needs of the employees as per their expectations so that the performance of the organization can be achieved. Organizations should have a good remuneration for their employees such that if employees are satisfied it will spread to customer satisfaction.

Another strategy employee relations at Commercial Banks is communication. It helps to communicate organisational strategies to all the employees. Communication is also a way of being transparent on things are being operated or channeled. This also helps organisations communicate their vision. Communication is very important in Commercial Banks because it is a strategy tool to organisational performance. Employees of the banks should be well informed on tasks to be perfomed such they prepare well and minimize some errors. Effective communication is absolutely critical to successful integration of employee. Employee relations leads to intrinsic motivation and motivational practices affect employee performance positively.
The concept of employee participation and involvement in decision making process
Poor involvement of employees in decisions making process has a negative effects on the implementation of the banks strategic objectives that are meant to achieve the performance of the banks. The implementation of strategies can be affected by poor employee relations of top management and junior staff. Implementation should be done with the involvement of both parties in decision making process. Poor leadership styles has a negative effect on the banks performance. Banks can perform well when there is a good employee relationship between the employer and the employee.
If the Commercial banks wants to increase their performance they should make sure they use a unique employee relations strategies such that they have a competitive advantage over their competitors. Commercial banks should create and a good organisational culture that attracts and retain employee attachment to the goals of the bank. Management and employees should work together to increase their organisational performance.

REFERENCES
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Harzing, A., & Ruysseveldt, J. (2004). International Human Resources Management, (2nd Ed.). London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Herriot, P. and Pemberton, C. (1995). New deals. The Revolution in Managerial Careers, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester
Hofstede, G. H. (1991). Culture and organizations: Software of the mind. London: McGraw Hill.

ILO 2009, Rules of the game: A brief Introduction to labour standards.Ivancevich, J.M., Lorenzi, P., Skinner, S.J., & Crosby, P.B. (2007). Management Quality and Competitiveness (2nd Ed.). Boston: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Morrison, E. W. and Robinson, S. L.. (1997). `When employees feel betrayed: a model of how psychological contract violation develops’, Academy of Management Review, 22, 226±256.

Pearce, J., ; Robinson, R. Jr. (2007). Strategic Management (10th Edition.). McGraw- Hill International Edition.

Porter, L. W., Pearce, J. L., Tripoli, A. M. and Lewis, K. M. (1998). `Differential perceptions of employers’ inducements: Implications for psychological contracts’, Journal of Organizational Behavior, 19, 769±782.

Ruth Mayhew : The role of employment law in employee relations
Schein, E. H. (1980). Organizational Psychology (3rd ed.), Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliks, NJ
http://www.godswilldesk.com/2015/08/roles-of-management-in-creating.htmlhttp://guides.wsj.com/management/recruiting-hiring-and-firing/should-i-rank-my-(accessed10 April 2018)
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/276026663employee relations and its impact on employee performance A case study _ accessed May 28 2018.

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