Plastic surgery is not new, and most of the techniques that are used today were developed by treating wounds sustained by soldiers in the two world wars 2 The term “plastic” surgery comes from the Greek word plastikos, which is to mold or shape (Gingrass, 2007).
Plastic surgery is divided into reconstructive surgery and cosmetic surgery. Reconstructive surgery is performed to treat parts of body that is defected functionally by trauma, congenital defects or any deformities that may hinder any daily activities. There is an aesthetic element to many reconstructive processes, but the main objective is to reimpose the normal function and appearance of the irregular tissues. Examples of reconstructive surgery would be cleft lip/palate repair or breast reconstruction after a mastectomy. According to the American Society of Plastic Surgeons, cosmetic surgery “is performed to reshape normal structures of the body in order to improve the patient’s appearance and self-esteem.” (Nahai, 2010)
Aesthetic surgery has developed over the years from an authentic medical practice to insignificant merchandise. This evolution must be discuss on whether it creates more troublesome issues than it is solved from ethical point of view as the number of cases regarding plastic surgery mishap. A tasteful medical procedure utilizes the belief system of a network that exclusive concerns vanity, energy and individual triumph to pick up benefit, which at that point loses the genuine importance of its motivation.
Appearance has been raised to defined the value of a man and medicine has been taking part in every aspect that contribute to that value which is not the initial meaning to what it is actually meant. These modern ideologies play a great role that change people perception on beauty instead of teaching them to treasure what they really are and embrace beauty within the soul. If aesthetic surgery fails to apply this, it will definitely lose its originality and distinctiveness as medicine.
Evaluation of practice based on ethical aspects:
Positive ethical aspect
Numerous people are utilizing restorative medical procedure as an elective method to upgrade physical appearance with a specific end goal to help fearlessness and raise confidence.According to Michael Bermant (2005), “appearances and deformities are important to anyone who engages in social interaction. Teens as well as adults have valid cosmetic conditions that can benefit from plastic surgery.”
By using medicine as a route to improve quality of life, it can also consider as healing as it can help to prevent or reduce emotional distress. Patients look for assistance from proficient as they feel troubled or unsatisfied with their physical appearance, and there is an elective way to accomplish their own joy and individual fulfillment which is restorative medical procedure.
As the idea of plastic medical procedure has moved from reconstructive medical procedure to one of self-change medical procedure, a definitive reason is enhancing the personal satisfaction of people who are viewed as solid and an expansion in the quantity of therapeutic advances to enhance physical appearance, execution, and mental state (Elliot, 2006). Medicine is now a platform to seek improvement of a person’s image and quality of life. The ability to do so is also now measurement of power and success, which result in boosting self-confidence in one’s own worth.
The goal of the surgeon now is no longer to correct imperfection or to reshape normal tissue but into something aesthetic. The genuine objective of accomplishment is regardless of whether the method has brought about the nature of “expanded satisfaction” in the patient. Happiness and joy, in this specific situation, isn’t the traditional thought of bliss, however a general inclination or feeling of pleasurable fulfillment (NavPress, 2006)
Negative ethical aspect
Cosmetics surgeons now no longer consider patients for whom they treat illness but rather clients that demand happiness by altering their healthy bodies. Also doctors now took this opportunity to run a business, as requirement is getting higher nowadays. Cheating patients is a standard in this field; business angle is put excessively in thought that concentration has change from patient’s prosperity to productivity. The Internet based life has turned into the most effortless course to publicize organizations and prescription is no exemption.
They advertise their product/service to capture patients recognition in an exaggerated manner to a point that patient actually convince by them when the truth is not what is actually shown. This form of marketing maybe useful by lying to patient and using misleading information is a fraudulent science and unethical. Patients need to be fully informed and understand what the treatment is about and the outcomes. Also they need to know what process they will go through as well as the consequences. If deceptive advertisement is used, patients will complain if anything goes wrong during the procedure and it will definitely negatively affecting cosmetic medicine reputation.
Next, a person should not be defined by their appearance. Beauty lies in the eye of the beholder, which literally means the existence of beauty is not on its own but is establish by the observers. Changing physical appearance that is consider nuisance to a person means they hated them self to meet certain standards that society have been put up.
Recent studies have shown that most of cosmetic surgery patients were motivated by the aspiration of celebrities whom they look up to and wanting to achieve whatever the celebrities have such as bony cheekbones, bigger lips or eyes (Gracindo, 2015). The problem ensues here is that a person values themselves on the image they see into the mirror and not accepting what they really worth beneath their skin. Looking at this view in the light of god demonstrates that our confidence ought not be construct principally in light of our physical appearance.
Application of ethics
The most prominent teleological theory is utilitarianism. A major distinction in utilitarian thought can be drawn between those theories, which conceive utility only in terms of happiness or pleasure – the hedonist and those who argue that other values, such as knowledge, health, friendship, beauty also matter – the pluralist.
The action’s outcome determined its morality. For example, if no adverse effects, result from euthanasia, either in a particular case or in general, then euthanasia is not immoral (Rachels, 1975).
In this particular case, when individual decided to change or alter their physical appearance for their own sake and happiness is what they gain from it, utilitarian reasoning is being applied to their decision which only focuses on whichever choices they made (Nathanson).
Utilitarianism holds that whatever increases happiness while reducing pain is consider ethical. To further illustrate, if a person chooses to undergo aesthetic surgery in order for them to eliminate frustration that has building up because of some features that haunting them, then it is right for them to remove the pain of frustration and achieve happiness or pleasure and gain more confidence by surgery.
This standard requires that medicinal professionals act in the patients ‘best advantages’. Undertaking medical procedure to enhance a patient’s mental self view and regard is worthy. Be that as it may, characterizing the patient’s best interest can be extremely troublesome. Numerous individuals encounter genuine torment, distress, social disable and enduring on the grounds that they are reluctant about their appearance. It’s very normal for individuals to attempt to improve themselves look than they do – for sexual fascination, for better employment conceivable outcomes, for confidence, horde reasons.
On the other hand, if a doctor use aesthetics surgery as a form of business marketing and use false advertisement to promote product or services, this is consider unethical according to Immanuel Kant. Studies show increase number of doctors uses this form of platform to gain profit and not to treat patient (Gracindo, 2015).
Media manufacture a few specialists by concentrated advertisings of self-perception, asserting a lie, overstating singular ability utilizing Photoshop pictures in the workplaces, that all give moral issues in the field of plastic medical procedure (Nelligan, 2013)
Data must incorporate the dangers of medical procedure together with elective choices. These standards apply much more to aesthetic medical procedure where patients are not experiencing any ‘illness’. Elective aesthetic treatment, which may prompt long haul unfriendly consequences for body capacity and wellbeing, include genuine moral concerns. In such circumstances, the patient’s appropriate for self-rule may negate the doctor’s standard of non-wrathfulness, and along these lines, legitimate thought is required before settling on such medicines (Mousavi, 2010).
Kant argues that a person is good or bad depending on their motivations of their actions and not on the goodness of the consequences of those actions (McCormick). In this case, the doctor “motivation” is profit they earn from aesthetic business.
In other words, their motive is no longer to help a person in need but to take advantage of the patient even though it is for the goodness for the patient.
Emotions and desire drove them to do it, then those actions can not give them moral worth which Kant mention that a persons moral worth is determine by a person’s action motivation (McCormick). Aesthetic surgeons ought to be hesitant to work on those with farfetched desires, as the dangers of medical procedure may exceed any benefits.
It is not necessarily the case that there is anything amiss with a craving to be appealing. Being a decent steward of the body given to us is a positive decent.
Precisely changing the outward type of their bodies may as a rule increment confidence, in any event for a period. There is no doubt that a person can get a lift when they feel appealing on a specific day. The challenges start, be that as it may, when they end up reliant on that emotional lift from their own engaging quality as fundamental to their fee. At present, aesthetic medical procedure is going through a character emergency and also an intense moral predicament. A more intensive look from a moral perspective makes it obvious that the specialist who offers aesthetic intercessions faces numerous genuine moral issues, which need to do with the character of a surgeon as a healer. Aesthetic medical procedure makes benefit from the belief system of a general public that serves just vanity, energy and individual achievement, and one which is dismissing the genuine qualities. The genuine estimation of a man can’t be diminished to his/her appearance, and medication as a workmanship, should feel the commitment to oppose these cutting edge belief systems and should endeavor to enable individuals to get a more real state of mind about themselves.