PROJECT REPORT

PROJECT REPORT
(UDP)
“Analytical design of mechanical stirrer getting effectiveness for mixture of aluminum alloys”
Submitted by
MIHIR PATEL (140110119052)
JAY RAJAWAT (140110119028)
In Partial fulfillment for the award of the degree
Of
BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING
IN
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
G H PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY

PROJECT GUIDE
PATEL R. NITINCHANDRA

DECLARATION
We hereby declare that the Project Report for the project entitled “Analytical design of mechanical stirrer getting effectiveness for mixture of aluminum alloys” submitted in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in “Mechanical Engineering” to Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad, is a bonafide record of the project work carried out at G H PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY under the supervision of PROF. PATEL R. NITINCHANDRA

MIHIR PATEL
(140110119052)
JAY RAJAWAT
(140110119028)

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled “Analytical design of mechanical stirrer getting effectiveness for mixture of aluminum alloys” has been carried out by “MIHIR PATEL” under my guidance in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in “Mechanical Engineering” 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year 2017-18. These students have successfully completed activity under my guidance.

Guided by: Head of the department
Prof. Patel R. Nitinchandra Prof. Darshak Desai
G H Patel college of G H Patel college of
Engineering and technology Engineering and technology
Bakrol gate, Anand, Gujrat, India Bakrol gate, Anand, Gujrat, India

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project entitled “Analytical design of mechanical stirrer getting effectiveness for mixture of aluminum alloys” has been carried out by “JAY RAJAWAT” under my guidance in partial fulfillment for the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in “Mechanical Engineering” 7th Semester of Gujarat Technological University, Ahmadabad during the academic year 2017-18. These students have successfully completed activity under my guidance.

Guided by: Head of the department
Prof. Patel R. Nitinchandra Prof. Darshak Desai
G H Patel college of G H Patel college of
Engineering and technology Engineering and technology
Bakrol gate, Anand, Gujrat, India Bakrol gate, Anand, Gujrat, India

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research work would not have been possible without the kind support of many many people. I take this opportunity to acknowledge that who has been great sense of support and inspiration thought the research work successful.

There are lots of people who inspired me and helped, worked for me in every possible way to provide the details about various related topics thus making research and report work success.

My first gratitude goes to our H.O.D. Prof. () Sir, for his guidance, encouragement and support during my semester. Despite his busy schedule, he is always available to give me advice, support and guidance during the entire period of my semester. His insight and creative ideas are always the inspiration for me during the research.

I am very grateful to Prof. PATEL R. NITINCHANDRA for all his diligence, guidance, encouragement and help throughout the period of research, which have enabled me to complete the research work in time. His constant inspiration and encouragement along with his valuable guidance has been instrumental in the successful completion of this project. He has always been willingly present whenever i needed the slightest support from him. I also thank him for the time that he spared for me, from his extreme busy schedule.

Last, but not the least my special thanks go to our institute, G H PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY, for giving me this opportunity to work in the great environment.

CONTENT

CHAPTER:-1
1.0 Introduction……………………………………………………………………..8
1.0.1 Problem Solving……………………………………………………………..8
1.0.2 Aims and Objectives of the Project…………………………………………9
CHAPTER:-2
2.0.1 Literature Survey…………………………………….………………………10
2.0.2 Literature Review…………………………………………………………….11
2.0.3 Different types of stirrer Blade………………………………………………12
2.0.4 Stirrer flow pattern…………………………………………………………..14
2.0.5 Stirrer Location………………………………………………………………15
CHAPTE:-3
3.0 Part of stirrer setup………………………………………………….…………16
3.0.1 Stirrer Blade…………………………………………………………………16
3.0.2 Stirrer Rod…………………………………………………………………..16
3.0.3 Motor………………………………………………………………………..17
3.0.4 Gearbox……………………………………………………………………..17
3.0.5 Crucible……………………………………………………………………..19
3.0.6 Furnace………………………………………………………………………19
3.0.7 Vertical Centrifugal setup……………………………………..………………20
3.0.8 Sensor…….……………………………………………………………………21

CHAPTER:-4
4.0.1 Stirring Parameter……………………………………………………………22
CHAPTER:-5
5.0 Calculation…………………………………………………………………….23
5.0.1 Calculation of Blade………….…………………………………………23
5.0.2 Calculation of power requirement for stirrer……………………………24
CHAPTER:-6
6.0.1 Application………………………………………………………………….26
6.0.2 Conclusions…………………………………………………………………26
6.0.3 Benchmark with recent technology…………………………………………………………..26
CHAPTER:-7
7.0.1 References……………………………………………………………………27
CHAPTER:-8
8.0 Appendix………………………………………………………………………28
8.0.1 Appendix-1 Empathy Canvas……………………………………………….29
8.0.2 Appendix-2 Ideation Canvas………………………………………………..30
8.0.3 Appendix-3 Product Canvas………………………………………………..31
8.0.4 Appendix-4 AEIOU Summary………………………………………………..32

CHAPTER 1:- INTRODUCTION
1.0.1 Problem Solving:-
Nowadays, there it is much difficult to make casting of hollow parts with accurate precision and accuracy. Therefore, centrifugal casting is a much better and easier way to produce this parts and also to produce parts with less thickness and also to manufacture parts with high surface finish.

CASTING: It is the manufacturing process in which molten metal is poured into mould cavity, after solidification of metal desired shape of part achieved.

CENTRIFUGAL CASTING: This is a process where the mould is rotated with predetermined speed about its central axis as the molten metal is poured into it. A molten metal is centrifugally thrown towards the inside metal wall, where it solidifies after cooling.

STIRRER: This is an important part of the vertical centrifugal casting system as it creates the vertical and horizontal turbulence for inside the molten metal and give us a perfect homogeneous mixture so that the cast part is good enough with surface roughness and less porosity.

1.0.2 Aims and Objectives of the Project:-
• The aim of the project is to do the analysis of stirrer for centrifugal casting machine. This machine produce hollow cylindrical parts. The stirrer part produces homogeneous mixture and reduce porosity and make a sound casting part.

Objectives:-
Design of true centrifugal casting machine.
Design of different types of stirrer.
By using analytical reasoning elimination of different types of stirrer.
Design of different configuration of stirrers possible.

CHAPTER:-2
2.0.1 LITERATURE SURVEY:-

The stirrer, at its rotational speed, different geometry, various blade angle such as 300, 450, 600, 900 required holding time in the LM6 mold, stirring temperature this all parameter used in making a effective stirrer and goal to achieve good mechanical properties with high purity in LM6 casting part and how to get fine structure in survey, I am finding a some patent as per below.

2.0.2 Literature Review:-
Sr. No. Title Author Conclusions
1. A Study on Mechanical Properties of Aluminum LM25- Sic Composites Dominic Roystan2, Balaguru4, C.Devanathan5 Mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness increases with
increasing the percentage contribution of Sic reinforcement
2. Optimum of
Stirring Parameters Using CFD Simulations for HAMCs Synthesis by Stir Casting Process Mohit Kumar Sahu1
• Raj Kumar Sahu1 From this analysis, it is revealed that different parameter are significant factors which affect the distribution of reinforcement in stir Casting of HAMC. Influence of impeller size being maximum (66.22%), followed by blade angle (23.41%) and stirring speed (3.18%).blade angle: 450, impeller size: 0.6 D and stirring rotation: 3000 rpm are the suggested optimal condition for homogenous distribution
3. Effect of Hybrid Reinforcement on Mechanical
Behavior of Aluminum Matrix Composite Amol Mali1 , 1PG Student, Mechanical Engg Dept.,
SKN Sinhgad College of Engg., Pandharpur UTS increases, Elongation decreases, compression strength increased, hardness of Hybrid composite increases with increase in weight percentage of Fly ash & Al2O3
4. Influence of stirring speed and stirring time on distribution
of particles in cast metal matrix composite
S. Balasivanandha Prabu a,
By increasing the stirring speed and stirring time better homogeneous distribution of SiC in the Al matrix were found. Better distributions of SiC were found at 600 rpm and 10 min stirring duration.

2.0.3 Different types of stirrer Blade:-
Blade stirrer

2. Anchor stirrer

3. Turbine stirrer

4. Helical stirrer

5. Paddle stirrer

Stirrer Blade fixing mechanism with LN bolt

2.0.4 Stirrer flow pattern:-

Blade stirrer (radial flow)

Propeller stirrer (axial flow)

Turbine stirrer (radial flow)

Anchor stirrer (radial flow)

Universal stirrer (dynamic radial flow)

2.0.5 Stirrer Location:-
For an effective stirrer location, about 1/3 of material should be below the stirrer and 2/3 of material should be above the stirrer.

CHAPTER:-3
Part of stirrer setup:
3.0.1 Stirrer Blade:-
Stirrer blade in crucible is used to mix lm25 material. This can be used to combine materials in the form of solids, liquids and gas. In this project paddle blade stirrer are used and this stirrer have different angle 300, 450, 600, 900 as shown in figure.

3.0.2 Stirrer Rod:-
Stirrer rod is attached with stirrer blade with push fit mechanism. Hollow shaft rod used in this project. As shown in figure stirrer rod is fix with stirrer blade and both of fix with key bolt.

3.0.3 Motor:-
Motor is used for rotating the gearbox and this gearbox is rotate to stirrer. In this project 0.5 hp, 150 rpm, 1 phase with aluminium frame.

3.0.4 Gearbox:-
Gearbox is used for transmitting power into high speed to lower speed. There are many types of gear is used in gearbox but we are used worm reduction gear. In this project 50 mm axial distance, 10:1 ratio and bore diameter 25 mm worm aluminum gearbox is used.

Assembly of motor and gearbox as below.

3.0.5 Crucible:-
A crucible is like a vessel which is used to hold the molten metal in a furnace. The crucible used is of clay graphite or silicon carbide. A crucible should withstand the high temperatures of melting and the crucible material must have a higher melting point than that of the metal being melted. 5 kg melting capacity crucible is used in this project.

3.0.6 Furnace:-
Furnace is a device used for heating the material to change their shape and properties.Our attempt through this project is to design and fabricate a furnace which is compact in size but still achieve a high temperature and economical. Resistance heating furnace is used in this project.

3.0.7 Vertical Centrifugal Setup:-
In vertical centrifugal casting process a permanent mold is rotated about vertical axis. The mold is spin at high speed usually 50 to 100 times gravity force . Here molten metal is poured the molten metal is centrifugally thrown towards inside mold wall. Out side of mold wall is cooled by water thus providing directional solidification from outside to inside. This method is more suitable for these bodies when the diameter is greater than their length.
Typical parts made by this process are Pipes, Bearing bushes, Pressure vessels, Flywheels, Cylinder liners, Piston ring, Sleeve valves.

3.0.8 Sensor:
The sensor is a sophisticated device that is frequently used to sense and respond to electrical (or) optical signals. Usually, the output of the sensor will be in the form of an electrical signal or optical signal. In our daily life, we use different types of sensors frequently in various applications like the Infrared sensor is used to operate the TV remote, PIR sensor is used in automatic door opening and closing, LDR sensor is used in street lighting system, etc. In the furnace thermistor sensor are used for detect temperature at given limit for high or low.

Types of Sensors

CHAPTER:-4
4.0 Stirring Parameter:
Reinforcement is added forcefully in to the molten stage of aluminum and to obtain homogeneity during solidification of fabricated composite are depends on following parameter.
Stirrer design
Stirrer speed
Stirrer Time
Stirrer blade angle

Blade pattern drastically affect the flow pattern. Stirrer blades play an important role in creating vortex of the molten matrix. This vortex formation ensures boding characteristic of matrix and reinforcement
Stirrer design based on the different stirring parameter stirrer speed 100 rpm, Aluminum alloys generally melts at 650?C. The processing temperature is mainly influence the viscosity of LM25 matrix. It also helps to create perfect interface bond between reinforcement and matrix. In our project, in order to promote good wettability, we kept operating temperature at 600-800°C which keeps LM25 in semisolid to liquid state. stirring temperature 650°C.In our project we kept speed of stirrer at 100 rpm.
The Ultimate tensile strength increases as stirring time increases and reaches maximum at 5 min. Further increase in stirring time leads to the reduction of ultimate tensile strength.

The currents generated by the stirrer rotation determine the distribution of particles within the melt. The axial and radial variation of the currents should be within a shorter range to achieve homogeneous distribution of particles. Previous studied indicated that AMCs an optimum inclination of the stirrer blade is required to disperse the particles uniformly into the melt different blade angle is used such as 300, 450, 600, 750, and 900.

CHAPTER:-5
5.0.1 Calculation:

??Abbreviations

H = Height of the crucible
D1 = Top diameter of crucible
D2= Bottom diameter of crucible
d = stirrer blade diameter
w = width of the stirrer blade
H1= Height of cylinder portion
H2= Height of bottom curved portion

??Crucible Specification

Graphite Material
H = 232 mm
D1 = 184 mm
D2 = 130 mm

??Stirrer Blade Design

D = 0.5*D1
= 0.5*184
= 92 mm

w = 0.05*D1
= 0.05*184
= 9.20 mm

??Notes:
H1 = 65% material above the stirrer.
H2 = 35% material below the stirrer.

5.0.2 Calculation of power requirement for stirrer:

Abbreviations:

H1 = Height of cylinder portion = 0.085 m
h = Height of parabola portion = 0.015 m
R = Radius of cylinder portion = 0.055 m
r = Radius of parabola portion = 0.055 m
? = Density of lm25 = 2670 kg/m3
N = Stirrer speed= 150 rpm
g = Gravitational force = 9.8 m/s2

all dimension are in meter.

A1 = Area of cylinder
= 2?RH1 + 2?R2
= 2*3.14*0.055*0.085 + 2*3.14*0.0552
= 0.048 m2

A2 = Area of parabola
= 2/3 r x h
= 2/3*0.055*0.015
= 0.001 m2

Total area a= 0.049 m2

Force equation = Pgah
= 2670*9.8*0.049*0.100
= 128.21 N

Now, calculating for torque T= F*r
= 128.21*0.055
= 7.052 Nm

For power calculation,

P = 2?NT/60
= 2*3.14*150*7.052/60
= 0.139 HP
From this equation we can say that motor requirement of stirrer is minimum 0.5 HP, 150 rpm.

CHAPTER:-6
6.0 Application and conclusion of stirrer:
6.0.1 Application:
This project application is relates to a mechanical stirrer for use in the preparation liquid state method of composite materials fabrication, in which a dispersed phase is mixed with a molten matrix metal by means of stirring. The fabricated samples were tested for its tensile strength, wear resistance, and hardness to investigate the effect of silicon carbide in matrix material.
For the homogeneous mixture of lm25 material.
Remove defect in casting part and get LM25 with high purity and also increase mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness increases with using mechanical stirrer.
6.0.2 Conclusions:
•This project led to the design and construction of true centrifugal casting machine which is made of mould, shaft, belt & pulley, bearing, motor.
•It is basically used for casting small hollow cylindrical components.
•The mould spinning speed depends on the casting desired.
•The design setup is reduce the construction cost of machine.
•This process is minimise porosity and holes in cast part.
•A Sound casting parts are generate by using centrifugal force

6.0.3 Benchmark with recent technology:
Centrifugal casting is way better than any other casting technique

CHAPTER:-7
7.0.1 References:
1.) Khalid Almadhoni, Sabah Khan “Review of Effective Parameters of Stir Casting Process on Metallurgical Properties of Ceramics Particulate Al Composites” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE).
2.) Mohit Kumar Sahu1,Raj Kumar Sahu1 “Optimization of Stirring Parameters Using CFD Simulations for HAMCs Synthesis by Stir Casting Process” Trans Indian Inst Met.
3.) Satyanarayen1 , Dominic Roystan2, M.Shreesaravanan3 Balaguru4, C.Devanathan5 “A Study on Mechanical Properties of Aluminium LM25- Sic Composites Fabricated Using Stir Casting Technique”
4.) Manabhanjan Sahoo, Ivan Sunit Rout, Dipti Ranjan Patra “Design and Fabrication of a Stir Casting Furnace Set-Up ” Manabhanjan Sahoo et al. Int. Journal of Engineering Research and Applications.
5.) Dr. B. Ravi “Casting design optimization driven by simulation” I.I.T. Bombay
6.) Anchor Institute “”Process Engineering: Agitation & Mixing” Department of Chemical Engineering Faculty of Technology Dharmsinh Desai University
https://www.google.com/search?q=stepper+motor+specification&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b-ab
https://www.google.com/search?q=grabox+suppliers+in+rajkot&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b-ab
https://www.google.com/search?q=furnace+suppliers+in+rajkot&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b-ab
https://www.google.com/search?q=ss316+material+properties&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b-ab
https://www.google.com/search?q=stirrer+blade+and+its+types&client=firefox-b-ab&tbm=isch&source=iu&ictx=1&fir=PW_SfkHYvcUSDM%253A%252Cm5J5hnST0zhEvM%252C_&usg=__BHBWa5q_RMb55Nqj1qh-iLLKVEI%3D&sa=X&ved=0ahUKEwiRts_nusvaAhVHebwKHYlCAFUQ9QEIQjAD#imgrc=PW_SfkHYvcUSDM:
https://www.google.com/search?q=lm25+material+properties&ie=utf-8&oe=utf-8&client=firefox-b-ab

CHAPTER:-8
8.0 Appendix
8.0.1 Appendix-1 Empathy Canvas:

8.0.2 Appendix-2 Ideation Canvas

8.0.3 Appendix-3 Product Canvas

8.0.3 Appendix-3 AEIOU Summary:-

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