RESEARCH ABOUT ISLAM
A research submitted to the Senior High School Department
In Polytechnic University of the Philippines
As a requirement in their subject Understanding Culture, Society, and Politics
Afalla, Arianna Ross A.
Delfin, Ricardo R. Jr.
Fallarcuna, Justine P.
Purcia, Philip Ian D.
Torio, Camille Judd R.
Ms. Paula Bianca Lapuz
August 30, 2018
F O U N D A T I O N
“Muhammad made an important role on establishing the religion Islam.”,according to Mr. Khadafy “Kid” Etado, the Sultan a cabugatan of Bacoor.The foundation of the faith and belief of the religion Islam is generally accredited with Prophet Muhammad. It can be traced back in 7th century in Saudi Arabia. Prophet Muhammad dictated the Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, which Muslims believed it as the perfect words of Allah, the God. Prophet Muhammad was chosen by God to deliver His Message of Peace, namely Islam.
He is the very last Prophet of God, the final Messenger of God. He was sent to religious people to cite them the true mission of the previous Prophets – namely Jesus, Moses, David, Jacob, Isaac and Abraham. He is considered as the summation and the culmination of all the Prophets and Messengers that came before him. He purified the previous messages from previous Prophets from adulteration and completed the Message of God for all humanity. He was entrusted with the power of dictating, interpreting and living the teachings of Qur’an.
“Muhammad portrays good character and do good deeds even before Gabriel come and proclaimed him as the Messenger of God.”, according to Mr. Khadafy “Kid” Etado, the Sultan a cabugatan of Bacoor.Qur’an testifies it as it was given by God through Angel Gabriel to Prophet Muhammad. Muhammad was forty years old when he was chosen by God, Allah to received the ultimately established Islam faith. In Sura 26:192-195 states “This is a revelation from the Lord of the universe. The Honest Spirit, Gabriel came down with it, to reveal it into your heart that you may be one of the warners, in a perfect Arabic tongue.” And in Sura 2:97 “Anyone who opposes Gabriel should know that he has brought down this (the Qur’an) into your heart, in accordance with God’s will, confirming previous scriptures, and providing guidance and good news for the believers.”
As Muhammad made an important role on the proliferation of the revelation of Qur’an and the religion Islam. Muslims believed that he received the revelations of Qur’an in the cave of ?ir?’in the mountain outside Mecca. It was the period of quiet reflection in time of Ramadan when he was overwhelmed by the presence of the Angel Gabriel. Muhammad was at first hesitant to recite when Gabriel commended him. Gabriel declared “Recite! In the name of your Lord who created: He created man from a clinging form. Recite! And your Lord is the Most Bountiful, who taught by the pen, who taught man what he did not know” (Quran, 96:1-5) Muslims believed that Muhammad recited it and had the feeling like it was written in his heart.He ran down the mountain, but heard a voice from the sky: “Muhammad, you are the Messenger of God, and I am Gabriel.” Looking up, Muhammad saw an angelic form standing along the horizon, repeating the message.
He then accepted it in himself and first recited to his wife and small group of believers which began to grow in Mecca. Muhammad and the growing number of individuals who followed him met with harsh and continual persecution from the Meccan aristocracy because they were perceived as a threat. Despite the threats, he weren’t stop to proliferate the Message of the God by revealing and dictating the Qur’an
Many Meccans and his followers embraced his teachings, beliefs, traditions based on him and the Qur’an, and the Shariah or the ‘essentials’ of the Islamic law.
B E L I E F S
The Core of Islamic Beliefs involved ‘Six Articles of Faith’.
“Allah had said that, He is the One and Only God and never will recreate or reproduce.”, according to Mr. Khadafy “Kid” Etado, the Sultan a cabugatan of Bacoor.It is the first article of faith, the Belief in One God– this is the most important teaching which is the oneness of God, Allah that is to be served and orshipped. Allah is the name of the One and Only God. In Qur’an, the holy book of Islam, it begins with the short chapter or surah called The Opening or the F?tihah which is considered as the Core of Qur’an: Surah. It described and named God as The Gracious, The Merciful, The Beneficent, The Creator, The All-Knowing, The All-Wise, The Lord of the Universe, The First, The Last, and many other.
A r a b i c E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n
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In the Name of God,
The Merciful, the Compassionate.
Praise belongs to God, Lord of the Worlds,
The Merciful, the Compassionate,
Master of the Day of Judgment.
It is You we worship; it is You we ask for help.
Guide us on the Straight Path: the Path of those You have blessed,
Those who incur no anger and who have not gone astray.
The biggest sin in Islam is to worship other beings other than Allah, The God. And, Muslims believe that it is a sin that God does not forgive if a person dies before repenting from it.
Second, Belief in Prophets of God – the oneness of messengers and the essages. Allah sent different messengers throughout the history of mankind. God communicates His guidance through human prophets. These prophets started with Adam and including Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus and the last Prophet of Allah, Muhammad.All came with the same message and the same teachings.
Third, Belief in the Existence of Angels – Muslims believed in the unseen creatures created by Allah in the universe for special missions mainly to administer His kingdom. They believed that angels surround us, each has duty and it can be conveyed through their actions, deeds and words.
Fourth, Belief in Divine Books of Allah Almighty – Muslims believe in all divine books of some Prophets which both all revealed God’s wisdom and instructions. Some of the Prophets have received revelations in the form of a scripture: to David (D?w?d) was revealed the Zab?r or Psalms; to Moses M?s? was revealed the Tawr?h or Torah, Jesus ‘Is? received the Inj?l or Gospel which the original teachings of these books got distorted or lost. Muslims believed that Prophet Muhammad received Qur’an that is believed as the God’s final revelation which has been fully preserved.
Fifth, Belief in the Day of Judgement – It is a belief to life after death, and to heaven and hell. Muslims believed that will have a day of judgement when all the people of the world are to be brought for accounting, reward and punishment. According to Islamic teachings, those who believe in God and convey good character will be eternally rewarded in Heaven and those who neglect faith in God will be eternally punished in the fire of Hell.
Sixth, Belief in Destiny and Divine Decree – Muslims believe that God is the ‘Sustainer’ of all life. He balanced life. Nothing happens excepts His will and with His full knowledge. Muslims believe that people are born free of sin. It is only after they reach the age of puberty and it is only after they commit sins that they are to be charged for their mistakes.
To practice Muslims faith, God instructed them to practice hat they believe in. They must accept the five formal acts of worship or the five primary obligation which Islams imposes which they call “Five Pillars of Islam”. ‘Islam’ is the basic definition for “Submission (to the will of God).” These five pillars are called in Arabic Al-arkan.
Shahada or the Repetition of the Creed –”La ilaha ilIa Allah; Muhammad rasul Allah.” which means “There is no god but the One God. Muhammad is the messenger of God.” This is the declaration of faith, the verbal commitment that there is only One God and Muhammad is the Messenger of God, simple yet profound for Muslims expresses their complete acceptance and total commitment to the message of Islam.
Salat or the Prayer – A devotional worship or prayer which requires Muslims to perform five dail prayers – the dawn prayer, the noon prayer, the afternoon prayer, the sunset prayer and the evening prayer – while facing the House of God, the Ka’bah in Mecca. It is a method of connecting to God and gather spiritual strength and peace of mind.
Zakat or the Purifying Tax – Almsgiving is an important principle of Islam. It is an obligatory religious tax considered as a form of worship. It is a type of charity because Muslims believe that all wealth are all blessings from God and it is their responsibility to give back to the church. In return, it will distributed among the poor or the other rightful beneficiaries.
Saum or Fasting – This happens during Ramadan, in the ninth month of Muslim year. The abstinence from food, liquids, and intimate relations. The fasting begins right after with the sighting of new moon and followed by it. During Ramadan month, Muslims pracice self-control and focus on devotion and prayers. “Ramadan fasting is our way of empathyzing and experiencing what it feels to have nothing.”, said by Mr. Khadafy “Kid” Etado, the Sultan a cabugatan of Bacoor. It is Muslims exercise in self-control and self-denial wherein one Muslim learns to appreciate the endurance of hunger that the poor often feel. The exercise of self-control extends far beyond restraining from food and drink; to make one’s fast acceptable to God, one must not curse, lie, cheat and abuse or harm others.
Hajj or Pilgrimage to Mecca –This is a belief that every Muslim must strive to make once-in-a-lifetime pilgrimage to the sacred sites in Mecca. It is in part, a memorial to he trials and tribulations of Prophet Abraham, his wife Hagar and his eldest son, Prophet Ishmael. Hajj is the most moving acts of Islam faith, for Muslims, they will be at the peak of their religious life, a moment when they satisfy a deep understanding at the House of God.
The Teachings of Prophet Muhammad condensed it by Islam scholars into statements, In which statements touch every aspect of our lives. First, “Actions are judged by the intention behind them.” Second, “God is Pure and does not accept anything unless it is pure and God has commanded the faithful with what He commanded the prophets.” Third, “Part of a person’s good observance of Islam is to leave aside what does not concern him.” Fourth, “A person cannot be a complete believer unless he loves for his brother what he loves for himself.” Fifth, “One should not harm himself or others.”And lastly, ” Don’t let your focus in this life be to amass worldly gain and God will love you. Don’t be concerned with what people have, and they will love you.”
The Core Islamic Law or The Shariah, mainly serve as the preservation of Religion, Life, Family, Mind, Wealth and the Justice or the Liberty. These are known as the ‘essentials’ because these are considered essentials to humankind that are designed by God for protection and the benefit of the masses.Sharia are laws based on the teachings of Qur’an and the traditions of Prophets namely the Hadith and Sunna. It laws provide the beliefs and guidance to humankind so good will triumph and reign over evil.
M A I N F O C U S / P U R P O S E
SURAH AL-IKHLAS (112)
1. Qulhuwallaahuahad (Say: He is Allah, the One and Only;)
2. Allah hus-samad (Allah, the Eternal, Absolute;)
3. Lam yalidwa lam yoolad (He begetteth not, nor is He begotten;)
4. Wa lam yakul-lahukufuwanahad (And there is none like unto Him.)
This is an oath that every members of Islam believes in. From this arise their main focus as a religious body and as members who are firmly standing up with their laws and established set of beliefs. To wholeheartedly take it in their hearts, that there is only one Allah, the beneficent and merciful.
As the word Islam literally means submission to the will of God. Islam teaches and encourages each of its members to engage in doing the right actions, as well as to have the right thinking, say the right words and see the right things. To always favor in justice, peace, and be hand-in-hand with the wellness of humanity.
By following the Five Pillars of Islam, the members are not just following the beliefs, but are also learning to appreciate life given by Allah, understand reality and to be able to give back an aid for those who are in need.
The known tradition of Islam is fasting in Ramadan, it is not just about completing the task of not eating as much as possilbe during the whole duration of the said time, but it is also about understanding what other people who does not have a chance to enjoy a proper meal feels like or simply, to emphatize with other people so that helping others in the future could be easier and done with a noble heart.
The purpose of Islam is to wholeheartedly embody the teachings of Qur’an, the Holy Book. To lead a peaceful and harmonious life. On the Coming of Judment Day, as long as they follow the path to being a righteous and true Muslims they will be rewarded in Paradise. Among the promises to the faithful are: luxurious furniture, good company, beautiful servants, wine that does not harm the body, fruit, meat, beautiful companions, endless water, the comfort of shade and eternal peace.
Whatever good you spend is for yourselves, (provided that) you give it seeking the Face of Allah. And whatever good you spend shall be repaid to you (in full), you shall not be treated unjustly (Al-Baqara, 2: 272).
A As per stated by Khadafy “Kid” Etado, Sultan a cagubatan of Bacoor, each member of Islam is walking on the same direction following the same purpose. Which is according to their creed or the Shahada, “Ashadu an la ilahaillailla-ilah, waashaduannamuhammadanrasulullah” meaning “I testify that there is no god than the one and only God (Allah), and I testify that Muhammad is the messenger of God (Allah).”
M E M B E R S H I P
“Islam is an open religion” according to Khadafy “Kid” Etado, the Sultan a cabugatan of Bacoor. They accept people of different sorts, as long as one is willing to submit his self to Allah (God). People who are new to Islam are called as BalikIslam because they believe that Philippines is not always a Christian country and that there was a time before colonization that everyone is Islam.
Converting to Islam is easy, though one is to be observed if it is truly their heart’s desire to surrender to Allah and worship Him alone. Believing that this person is ready, they make them say a sentence called Shahadah or “Testimony of Faith”:
I testify “La ilahailla Allah, Muhammad rasoolu Allah” (There is no true god but God (Allah), and Muhammad is the Messenger (Prophet) of God.)
This is to be said three times while understanding the real meaning if this context. Only then that a person is converted to Islam and is called Muslim. This can be done alone but is better in front of the respected persons in Islam like Ulama, which is defined by Wikipedia as “the guardians, transmitters and interpreters of religious knowledge, of Islamic doctrine and law”.
To better understand the meaning of Shahadah, we look into an article from the IslamReligion.com entitled ‘How to convert to Islam and become a Muslim”. It is stated there thatthe first phrase, there is no true god but Allah means we are to worship only one God and no one else. This is a strict rule that everyone should follow. The second phrase, Muhammad is the messenger of God, means that he is a true prophet that is given by God himself to humankind.
Being a Muslim doesn’t stop at understanding Shahadah, one should also believe that the Holy Qur’an is literally the word of God and is given by He Himself. They should also believe in Judgement Day, prophets sent by God, the books He revealed, His angels and respect Islam as one’s religion.
C H A L L A N G E S
Nowadays, most of us Filipinos are involved in criticizing through the use of “social media”. Apparently, a frightful increasing number of different kinds of crimes are now in our country, which we often see in newspapers, televisions, and in the internet. This happening includes killing, violence, slavery, and war which is not new to many people even it actually brings fear, and mourning to the society.
Along with these unusual scenes, it seems that the religion of Muslims have always been involved in many pages of news about violence. One example of this is the well-known “Abu Sayyaf” group, an armed group among the “Moro” or Muslim fighters during the time of hegemony of Spaniards in the Philippines. This group has been labeled as terrorists involved in the bombing of civilian and kidnapping for ransom.
In connection to that, it was the start of having fear and indifference of people in identifying Muslim. Overtime, there has been a stereotyping and hasty generalization for other Muslims, this deprived them to some of their rights and liberty as a person and therefore it was a tough test that they faced everyday having a negative view of their own Islamic religion.
Among those who experienced it is Mr. Khadafy “Kid” O. Etado, a “Sultan a Cagubatan” of Bacoor, Molino Bacoor President Bacoor Muslim Consultative assembly board of Director, and Philmusta Chapter President Bacoor City. He said that during the time of Prophet Mohammad in which the height of the wars between Muslims and Persian happens, Mohammad said that the only opponent in their fighting was their own selves. In this story, Mr. Khadafy explains that it is difficult for Muslims to be accepted by others. Even until now the Islamic religion is still not accepted by other religions such as the Christians or Catholic.
According to him, a huge of Filipino Christians does not know the difference between the word of “Muslim” and “Islam”. Mr. Khadafy asserted that the word ‘Muslim’ refers to all names with has Islamic religion while the word ‘Islam’ corresponds to what the name of the Muslim religion is.
He also emphasized that there are two classes of Muslims, those who are true Muslims and fake Muslims. Mr. Khadafy said that the uninitiated Muslims are Muslim people who are abusing their being Muslim, which they use them to fear other people. Meanwhile, true Muslims are the people who are opposite to being a fake Muslim who does not steal, slaver, and involved in violence, but instead walk on the righteous path of following the will of Allah.
In line with this, Mr. Khadafy said that it is not fair to label those who do wrong things as “Muslims” because it causes to further incriminate all Muslims that act correctly.
Also, one of the problems they faced as Muslims was they living in a Christian area, and sometimes it is difficult to approach to get to know and meet other people.
From the statistics of Worldatlas, the Islamic religion was the third largest number of the religions in the Philippines after the Catholicism and Christianity, which compromise five up to ten percent of the population of the country. The religion existed in the region for around a century before the spread of Christianity. Islam first spread to Simunul Island in the Philippines through foreign trade with countries such as India. (Worldatlas, 2016)
Furthermore, their intense trials are the existence of discrimination for their religion in which all Muslims involves even the good ones when there is one issue approaching to them. According to Mr. Khadafy, every one must first be aware of the true fact why and how other religions have negative attitudes and anger for years in them.
Mr. Khadafy relates that he already had experienced discrimination when he entered a college in Manila. He encountered rejections by a whole class while he was introducing himself. Therefore, the discrimination is one of the hardest he has gone through. Perhaps during that time, it was the emergence of armed ‘Abu Sayyaf’ groups in the Philippines that is why many people feared and abandoned Muslims.
Mr. Khadafy tells what he knows about ‘Abu Sayyaf’. According to him, there was a great war in Mindanao in ancient times even during the time of former President Ferdinand Marcos. September 21, 1972, when the Martial Law in the Philippines was implemented, many of the properties in the Mindanao were destroyed. And during this time, many people were killed by soldiers who are in the government.
Consequently, the ‘Abu Sayyaf’ emerged and had insight of revolution for the people who were against the Philippines government. He clarified that the chaos in Mindanao was inadequate reason for the continuous denouncing of the ‘Abu Sayyaf’. In the meantime, Khadafy said there may be still some leaders of ‘Abu Sayyaf’ whose purpose is good when it comes to preaching the teachings in their “Qu’ran”.
Throughout the trials faced by Mr. Etado’s religion, he did not bother to get involved with people who put them in discrimination. Rather, as true Muslims he said that it is necessarily not important to give attention to people who thinks ill of them, but instead focus on doing what Islam wants them to do. Mr. Etado believes that if a man is angry and slaps him because of his religion, it is better to give his other side of face.
It is very important to note that people should have a sufficient knowledge and learn to respect other religion. Proper introduction, proper knowledge acquisition, and proper use of today’s innovative technology will make it possible for everyone to recognize different religions. This virtue will result in fully understanding relationship between every religion and have a peaceful coexistence.
R E F L E C T I O N
Over the years, we are taught in schools and by our parents to respect others. In respecting others also comes the virtue of respecting other religions. However, in honestly speaking there were times that we had our own prejudices and bad perspectives towards religion that is not ours.
And the Islamic religion is not excempted to that occurence. Ordinary citizens normally sees them with a bad impressions, also stating examples like the Muslims being involved in creating terrorist groups and so on. These reasons further lead to some hasty generalizations that we still put up until now.
Muslims Islamic faith, beliefs and traditions are distinctly exercised comprehensively. It can be conveyed on their traditions, especially Ramadan. It only shows on how they really are devoted to worship and praise Allah, The God by enduring the abstinence of eating and drinking for their faith. And on how they are as a whole for the adaptation and application of the Qur’an and Islamic teachings in the everyday life.
Most Filipinos when they heard and saw someone that is Muslim, they would think of them as people who are bad, has strong personalities and such. But in contrary to it, Muslims are good people for they acquire and adapt the attitude of their God, Allah and from their Prophets, specially Prophet Muhammad, and the Last Messenger of God. It is their faith, beliefs and traditions that drives them to be a good model, not only for themselves and for the people.
This activity made us see religion in a different way. We always respect people and their religion but it ends there. This activity though, made us want to explore and actually understand the beliefs of other people, it opened our mind about how much religion is misunderstood.
People who are expossed to their own religion might only see flaws form other religions, when in truth every religion has a flaw. And that these are not important. What’s important is that we need to understand that religion is not simply an organization we belong to but is a system of beliefs that anchors a person’s soul to one another. For doing well to one another is doing well to God, whoever God we worship.
As a student, having the knowledge of each other’s religion signifies giving respect to everything. For us, everything changes even in the tradition of a religion. If we stop comparing all religions and beliefs, only one can only achieve its goals; it is to unite and do what is right. It would be better if none of us would discriminate against the fact of what is the truth about each other’s religion.
Islam has a solid belief to their God. And the submission that they have to the will of Allah allows them to humbly testify that there is no other God than their God, they serve no other God but their God. This religion has an organized system of beliefs they are following and we are in awe and forever in respect for their virtues.
N A R R A T I V E
Islam is the second largest religion in the Philippines, making up 6% of the population according to the national religious surveys. The Muslims today are known as cultual communities who had continually survived from foreign influences until today.
The original roots of Muslim in the Philippines came from Mindanao and Sulu. There are many ethnic groups in the country who embodies and lives by the teachings and beliefs of Islam. It is stated in several history bookjs that Islamic people are those who first started the political government in trhe country therefore, it can be implied that Islam plays an important role for shaping the historical development of the Philippines.
For this study, our group decided to take interest in the local Muslim community in Bacoor, Cavite, a hometown of our Muslim classmate. For the interview we are honored to have Mr. Khadafy “Kid” O. Etado, a “Sultan a Cagubatan” of Bacoor, Molino Bacoor President Bacoor Muslim Consultative assembly board of Director, and Philmusta Chapter President Bacoor City.
We prepared five questions to further understand their religion. Answers were openly given to us and it further draws to clear some of our little misunderstanding towards their beliefs. For us, we had always known Islam as a strict religion firmly standing up on their set of laws and traditions.
As we conduct the interview, we pictured out a clearer understanding as to why there is a need to fully be strict in implementing and following their laws and traditions, because for them to follow is to fully submit themselves to God.
Though there were no formal introductions and place when we conducted the interview, we felt the legitimacy of the conducted interview as Mr. Etado was really knowledgeable member of Islam and also a Political Science graduate from Arellano University.
After the interview, our group went to their local mosque, but we were not allowed by the church locals to enter not for any harsh reason but because the establishment is under repair and construction.
Nevertheless, the local church visit and interview in Bacoor, Cavite was a remarkable activity as it enables us to understand and see that Islam is not just a religion for its own members, but a beautiful religion that opts to be understood by everyone in the country
10731527940000305054027940000P I C T U R E S
64770077470During the interview with Mr. Khadafy “Kid” O. Etado, a “Sultan a Cagubatan” of Bacoor, Molino Bacoor President Bacoor Muslim Consultative assembly board of Director, and Philmusta Chapter President Bacoor City.
00During the interview with Mr. Khadafy “Kid” O. Etado, a “Sultan a Cagubatan” of Bacoor, Molino Bacoor President Bacoor Muslim Consultative assembly board of Director, and Philmusta Chapter President Bacoor City.
762000229235Picture on their local mosque built by and for the Muslim members in Bacoor, Cavite.
00Picture on their local mosque built by and for the Muslim members in Bacoor, Cavite.
R E F E R E N C E S
Mr. Khadafy “Kid” Etado, the Sultan a cabugatan of Bacoor.
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W. (n.d.). How to Convert to Islam and Become a Muslim. Retrieved from https://www.islamreligion.com/articles/204/how-to-convert-to-islam-and-become-muslim/Brenner, M. (2017, October 09). The Goals of Islam. Retrieved August 28, 2018, from https://classroom.synonym.com/the-goals-of-islam-12085610.htmTransliteration of Surah Al-Ikhlas in Roman Script with English and Arabic. (n.d.). Retrieved August 28, 2018, from https://www.quran411.com/surah-ikhlas.aspAnthony, D. (2016, September 12). Religious Beliefs In The Philippines. Retrieved from https:// www. Worldatlas.com/articles/religious-beliefs-in-the-philippines.html