Resilience word derive from Latin word resilire which means to bounce back. Adaptive and sometimes unusual, human development in adverse environment is remarkable (Day, 2015). Masten 2011 defines resilience as ”the capacity of a dynamic system to withstand or recover from significant threats to its stability, viability or development”. Resilience is build up of two dimensions. First, because of the prior established maladjustment there must be the presence of notable adversity with elevated odds. Second, there’s necessary to be a constructive adaptations that considerably effective than anticipate (Masten, 2001). The study of resilience has established an affluent understanding of how people overcome unpleasant or difficult situation (Cicchetti, 2013; Masten and Wright, 2009).
Resilience is define as ‘malleability in response to changing situational demands and the ability to bounce back from negative emotional experience.(Block and Block, 1980; Block and Kremen, 1996; lazarus,1993). Resilience is the ability to cope with changing environment and dangers (Lee and cranford, 2008). Resilient people can deal with every situation successfully and can handle every trouble. Individuals that have resilient trait experience positive emotions in every stressful events and situation .This show their ability to bounce back successfully instead of tragedy. This means that resilient people may understand the advantages that are related to positive emotions, that they cause later in stressful and in bad situation. (Tuagade and Fredrickson, 2002; 2004). Resilient people not only build positive emotions in themselves but they are also able to build positive emotions in other people that are close to them through which the resilient people make a helpful social environment that help the individuals in coping procedures. (Demos, 1989. Kampar, 1999. Werner and smith, 1992). Resilience is also describe as ‘an individual ability to quickly recover in risky situations (Leopold and Grave, 2009). Researchers have recently administered concept-based analysis to demonstrate the cause, outcomes and the integral features of resilience. (Ramirez, 2007. Windle, 2011). The central cause of resilience is to consider the mishap and the main effect is to be considered the positive adaptation of the stressful situation. An important consideration that arises from the study related to the conceptualization of resilience is either a trait or a process (Windle, 2011). When resilience is visualize as a trait, it has been indicate that it shows the bunch of attributes that permit a person to adjust to the situation that happens to them (Connor and Davidson, 2003). The psychological resilience has been perceived as a personality trait. It is considered that resilience trait is changeable which means that resilience trait is change with time.
Garmezy introduce some of factors that affect resilience are these (Garmezy, 1984):
1: Individual factors; a child’s dispositional characteristics e.g, the activity level of a child , their cognitions, and how they face new situation and how they give positive response to other people in negative situation.
2: Familial factors; family conditions and warmness, the presence of parents or the presence of other members of the family that the child’s parents concern for the wellbeing of the child.
3: Support factors; an external support outside of the family that provide support to the individual e.g. a teacher.
Resilient people have the tendency to show positive attitude and behavior in negative situation. When bad things happen to them they deal with those things in a very good manner and they show positive behavior in that situation. They know how to deal with stressful and depressed conditions. They have the capacity to give positive response to environment and to other people in negative emotional situation. They can easily adjust in every new situation and easily adjust in new environment.
The word narcissism comes from Greek mythology, where a young man fell in love with his own image reflecting in water (Malcolm, 2014). The concept of narcissism was first introduced by Frued in his psychoanalytic theory. When level of narcissism increase and it become a part of person’s personality it will convert to Narcissistic Personality Disorder which is classified in DSM. According to DSM symptoms of narcissistic personality disorder are; grandiosity, excessive need for admiration, exaggerated sense of self importance and lack of empathy (Cherry, 2018). Narcissism seeing themselves as a superior who are entitled a unique treatment, also have distended sense of self-worth (Haslam, 2017). When they are ignored or their unique gifts are challenged they react in highly aggressive manner. Narcissist tends to have high self esteem than normal or average level, but that these levels are to some extent fragile and defensive (Haslam, 2017).
Narcissist are characterised by six areas of pathological functioning and this six areas are best illustrate in four narcissistic characteristics (Carson and Butcher, 1992) which is follows;
1. They have a sense of inferiority, which underlies engrossment with imagination of greater achievement.
2. They are impotent to trust and rely on others and thus build countless, shallow relations to extricate tributes from others.
3. They always have a shifting morality- always prepared to transfer values to acquire favour.
4. They are not able to remain in love and have impaired capacity for a committed relations.
1.2.1 Theories on Narcissism
220.127.116.11 Freud (1925)
In the interest of Freud, narcissism is on a very basic level the theory of libidinal power inside the self-image. Auxiliary narcissism is disintegration toward essential narcissism also be proficient for the reason that it enriches with joy. Dream generally is more pleasant than authenticity. Tenants create analytic substance inclinations in the expectation to others will execute narcissistic wants inside the direct of their parents (moreover especially the cultivating mother). Other people who detail narcissistic substance inclination invest their libidinal energy inside features of themselves. Freud delineate Homosexual people alongside follow guardians while making narcissistic substance inclinations. While a narcissist is infatuated with another, it is for the reason that they be much the same as the self-inside a few ways.
18.104.22.168 Lacan (1986)
For Lacan, narcissism starts inside the mirror period, wherever the misjudged perfect portrayal is esteemed. Narcissism end up being testing while this point be not by any stretch of the imagination take control and in addition the reflection isn’t turned out to be cognizant in that capacity notwithstanding searching for consequent to this impracticable perfection end up being a charmed and additionally endless aspiration.
22.214.171.124 Klein (1975)
Klein disposed of Freud’s contemplations of antiquated narcissism. Inside Protest Relations Hypothesis be a kind of substance inclination inside which the self-acting a more noteworthy component than the certified element of the element. Inside narcissists, the sense of self is tearing and in addition for no reason totally re-coordinated.
126.96.36.199 Winnicott (1975)
Implied for Winnicott, narcissism is a structure of manufactured self. A desire of the satisfactory mother is to encourage the child while in transit to structure a consolidated and also incredible self completely through durable pessimism notwithstanding utilization of a changeover element.
188.8.131.52 Kohut (1971)
Kohut to the subject-love of narcissism corresponds amidst question love of others inside the lion’s share tenants, besides perceives a whole course aggregate pf identity strife in order to stalk starting a crushed development of this standard balance. Solely, these show up as of be lacking in mindfulness beginning guardians generally while the newborn children be dealt with like an add of a guardian’s conscience.
184.108.40.206 Kernberg (1975)
Kernberg standpoint analytic not with standing narcissistic substance allocation seeing that disconnected and in addition have an identity, which is neglected to perceive or else over the top on threatening vibe. Obsessive element affiliations be separated as of the honest to goodness matter as they are troubling. He sees obsessive narcissism seeing that being more than disintegration while in transit to an earlier crossroads in spite of the fact that oblige to energetic hypothesis into a twisted identity.
220.127.116.11 Lasch (1979)
Lasch (1979) describes raising narcissism toward merciful progress, wherever the brutal upper-sense of self is outdated by methods for the traditions of the inner self. Corporate greed influences a point of convergence over liberality and in addition social endorsement also thus too convinces extra unbolt narcissism. Missing dads be excessively seen since a reason, which have relationship in the midst of Lacan’s require implied for prospering advancement alongside the character of the dad inside the meaningful list. Narcissism may too put into the piece of consumerist associations since a point of convergence lying on the identity in the end demonstrate the path toward increased endeavor rate with dis-economies of adjust. Fascinatingly, narcissism is a remote more customary condition handled by means of psychoanalysts these days Amid freudian age the more normal stipulation was extra inside id-based sexually-based persecution.