SUMMARY

SUMMARY:
As mentioned above, the pectinase is an enzyme that responsible for breaking down the pectin polymer into its monomer (negatively charged) known as galacturonic acid. Pectin is a type of polysaccharide that can be found in plant cell wall, so the enzyme pectinase is used to break down its 1,4-?-D-galactosiduronic linkages by breaking the ester bond between methyl group and carboxyl group.
In extraction process, pectinase is used to clarify and produce quality fruit juice. This process also known as enzymatic treatment. For example, in the apple juice processing, pectinase treatment will be applied twice throughout the process. The first treatment is to release the juice by breaking the structure of the pectin and loosening the network between cells (Twaddell, 2016). Pectinase can help to improve the juice’s transparency. Therefore, the second treatment will be given in the clarification of the apple juice along with amylases to produce lower viscosity juice and reduce the unwanted cloudiness caused by pectin and starch.
Other than fruit processing, pectinase is used in wine processing as well since it accelerates the process to enhance the flavour and colour of the wine. Generally, the pectinase has various functions. It is an effective enzyme as it hydrolyses bond in pectin so that more juices are released, improve quality of juices, enhance flavour and colour and reduce viscosity of juice.
Based on the journal of food engineering, there is another well-known treatment called enzymatic mash treatment. It is used for collecting more juices from the vegetables and fruits. It is not only increasing the yield of juice but also increasing the carotene and dry content of the product. Immobilised enzymes are the enzymes that bind to a solid support so that it will not mix freely and work out for its function (Twaddell, 2016). The activity of immobilised enzyme pectinase is measured by using the viscosity reduction of pectin solution. The highest enzyme activity of pectinase was detected in pectin solution. Throughout the experiment carried out in carrot puree (immobilised pectinase added into carrot puree), it is found that the viscosity of carrot puree is decreased while the dry content matter increased. This has caused the increase of total yield of carrot puree. There is an increase of 30.23% in the total yield with compared to the yield in carrot juice without enzymatic treatment (Demir, et al., 2001).