The most basic software countermeasure is an application firewall that limits the execution of files or the handling of data by specific installed programs whereas the most common hardware countermeasure is a router that prevent the IP address of an individual computer from being directly visible on the internet. Other countermeasures include encryption/decryption programs, anti-virus, spyware detection/removal programs, firewalls and biometric authentication systems.
Application security can be enhanced by rigorously defining enterprise assets, identifying what each application does (or will do) with respect to these assets, creating a security profile for each application, identifying and prioritizing potential threats and documenting adverse events and the actions taken in each case. This process is known as threat modeling. In this context, a threat is any potential or actual adverse event that can compromise the assets of an enterprise, including both malicious events, such as a denial-of-service (DoS) attack, and unplanned events, such as the failure of a storage device.