The syntactic stylistic devices as elaborate designs aim to attract the reader’s attention and to make a desired effect on the reader. Therefore, the peculiar syntactical arrangement consists of the following patterns, patterns of stylistic inversion, repetition, parallelism, chiasmus and enumeration, etc.
Practically, stylistic devices in almost all languages are similar still though their functions in speech vary. Identical stylistic devices are used differently in languages; they perform different functions and have different value in stylistic system of their language what actually explains their necessity when transformations in translation occur. The stylistic changes are as necessary as grammatical or lexical ones. While applying some grammatical or lexical transformation in translation the translator is guided by principle of rendering grammatical of lexical meaning. When rendering stylistic meaning of the source text a translator should be guided by the same principle – to recreate in translation the same impression that might be left by the original text.
A translator should not try to preserve the stylistic device given in the sentence, but reproduce its function in the target language. We should not forget that almost all stylistic devices are multifunctional. It is like when polysemantic words in English and Russian languages do not coincide in their lexical-semantic variants and the same is when differ the function of identical stylistic device. Thus when comparing stylistic devices we can easily identify complete correspondence, partial correspondence and even sometimes absence of correspondence and their functions.
The research we have tried to carry out shows that the speeches of American and British politicians are characterized by a great number of devices which make the speech sound more persuasive and expressive. The research shows that mostly the following stylistic devices are used in political speeches, parallel constructions, repetition, enumeration, antithesis, gradation, polysyndeton, asyndeton, inversion, and rhetorical question.
Parallel construction is the repetition of the same syntactical structure in two or more succeeding sentences. Parallelism in political speech tends to convey a certain definite rhythm to the narration and due to its sameness it created a certain background to emphasize the necessary word or phrase. This word or phrase is usually repeated in the parallel constructions.