“Training” refers to a systematic approach to learning and development to improve
individual, team, and organizational effectiveness (Goldstein & Ford 2002). Alternatively, development refers to activities leading to the acquisition of new knowledge or skills for purposes of personal growth. Benefits Related to Job Performance Training-related changes should result in improved job performance and other positive changes (e.g., acquisition of new skills; Hill & Lent 2006, Satterfield & Hughes 2007) that serve as antecedents of job performance (Kraiger 2002). Reassuringly, Arthur et al. (2003) conducted a meta-analysis of 1152 effect sizes from 165 sources and ascertained that in comparison with no-training or pretraining states, training had an overall positive effect on job-related behaviors or performance (mean effect size or d = 0.62). However, although differences in terms of effect sizes were not large, the effectiveness of training varied depending on the training delivery method and the skill or task being trained. For example, the most effective training programs were those including both cognitive and interpersonal skills, followed by those including psychomotor skills or tasks. found that on-the-job training led to greater innovation and tacit skills. Tacit skills are behaviors acquired through informal learning that are useful for effective performance.